RenaudAllardMauffette1997

Référence

Renaud, J.P., Allard, G., Mauffette, Y. (1997) Effects of ozone on yield, growth, and root starch concentrations of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars. Environmental Pollution, 95(3):273-281.

Résumé

Ozone (O3) is considered to be a major air pollutant that affects the yield of several sensitive crop species. Its concentration may reach phytotoxic levels several times during the growing season in Eastern Canada. This study was initiated to evaluate the O3 effects on alfalfa, a major crop species. The objective was to compare the yield and growth parameters of the main alfalfa cultivar used in Quebec, Apica, to a cultivar more tolerant to O3, Team. Effects on root starch concentrations were also examined as this parameter is an important indicator of alfalfa perennity. The results obtained have shown that the forage yield of Apica was more reduced by O3 during two growing seasons than the yield of Team. For O3 concentrations of 20 to 40 nl liter-1, yield reductions were 14-26% for Apica and 0-20% for Team. Whereas Apica could be considered more susceptible to O3 than Team, the latter has shown contrasting responses from year to year. This fact suggests that the mechanisms involved in O3-tolerance could be modulated by environmental conditions. At low O3 levels, Apica has shown reduced root growth in terms of dry matter and length. However, contrary to the current hypothesis that O3 would affect more root than shoot growth, we were unable to show a consistent alteration of the biomass allocation between the two. Ozone seems to reduce globally the growth of the whole plants. The greater O3-tolerance of Team could partly be associated to its capacity to maintain more leaves, to delay their senescence, or to keep a larger leaf:stem ratio under increasing levels of O3. At the end of the two growing seasons, the amount of starch reserves stored below ground was shown to be reduced by the current O3 levels. This reduction was mainly associated with a decrease in root biomass under O3 stress. This result support the hypothesis that O3 may accelerate alfalfa decline under field conditions.

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@ARTICLE { RenaudAllardMauffette1997,
    AUTHOR = { Renaud, J.P. and Allard, G. and Mauffette, Y. },
    TITLE = { Effects of ozone on yield, growth, and root starch concentrations of two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars },
    JOURNAL = { Environmental Pollution },
    YEAR = { 1997 },
    VOLUME = { 95 },
    PAGES = { 273-281 },
    NUMBER = { 3 },
    NOTE = { 02697491 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 6 Export Date: 25 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: ENPOE doi: 10.1016/S0269-7491(97)00001-8 Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Renaud, J.P.; Centre de recherche acericole; MAPAQ; 2700 rue Einstein Ste-Foy, Que. G1P 3W8, Canada Chemicals/CAS: ozone, 10028-15-6 References: Altshuller, A.P., Atmospheric chemistry and long-range transport (1988) Assessment of Crop Loss from Air Pollutants, pp. 65-89. , eds W. W. Heck, O. C. Taylor and D. T. Tingey, Elsevier Applied Science, London; Andersen, C.P., Hogsett, W.E., Wessling, R., Plocher, M., Ozone decreases spring root and root carbohydrate content in ponderosa pine the year following exposure (1991) Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 21, pp. 1288-1291; Bennett, J.P., Runeckles, V.C., Effects of low levels of ozone on plant competition (1977) Journal of Applied Ecology, 14, pp. 877-880; Blum, U., Smith, G.R., Fites, R.C., Effects of multiple O3 exposures on carbohydrate and mineral contents of ladino clover (1982) Environmental and Experimental Botany, 22, pp. 143-154; Blum, U., Morzek E., Jr., Johnson, E., Investigation of ozone (O3) effects on 14C distribution in ladino clover (1983) Environmental and Experimental Botany, 23, pp. 369-378; Brewer, R.F., (1982) The Effects of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide on Alfalfa Yields and Hay Quality, , Final report for ARB agreement, A1-038-33, Parlier, CA, 21 pp; Cooley, D.R., Manning, W.J., The impact of ozone on assimilate partitioning in plants: A review (1987) Environmental Pollution, 47, pp. 95-113; Cooley, D.R., Manning, W.J., Ozone effects on growth and assimilate partitioning in Alfalfa, Medicago sativa L (1988) Environmental Pollution, 49, pp. 19-36; Davidson, R.L., Effect of root/leaf temperature differentials on root/shoot ratios in some pasture grasses and clover (1969) Annals of Botany, 33, pp. 561-569; Heagle, A.S., Kress, L.W., Temple, P.J., Kohut, R.J., Miller, J.E., Heggestad, H.E., Factors influencing ozone dose-yield response relationships in open-top field chamber studies (1988) Assessment of Crop Loss from Air Pollutants, pp. 141-179. , eds W. W. Heck, O. C. Taylor and D. T. Tingey, pp. Elsevier Applied Science, London; Heagle, A.S., Philbeck, R.B., Ferrell, R.E., Heck, W.W., Design and performance of a large, field exposure chamber to measure effects of air quality on plants (1989) Journal of Environmental Quality, 18, pp. 361-368; Heagle, A.S., Miller, J.E., Sherrill, D.E., Rawlings, J.O., Effects of ozone and carbon dioxide mixtures on two clones of white clover (1993) New Phytologist, 123, pp. 751-762; Heck, W.W., Taylor, O.C., Tingey, D.T., (1988) Assessment of Crop Loss from Air Pollutants, , Elsevier Applied Science, London. 552 pp; Howell, R.K., Devine, T.E., Hanson, C.H., Resistance of selected alfalfa strains to ozone (1971) Crop Science, 11, pp. 114-115; Kochhar, M., Blum, U., Reinert, R.A., Effects of O3 and/or fescue on ladino clover: Interactions (1980) Canadian Journal of Botany, 58, pp. 241-249; Lesser, W.M., Rawlings, J.O., Spruill, S.E., Somerville, M.C., Ozone effects on agricultural crops: Statistical methodologies and estimated dose-response relationships (1990) Crop Science, 30, pp. 148-155; Letchworth, M.B., Blum, U., Effects of acute O3 exposure on growth, nodulation, and nitrogen content of ladino clover (1977) Environmental Pollution, 14, pp. 303-311; McKendry, I.G., Ground-level ozone in Montreal, Canada (1993) Atmospheric Environment, 27 B, pp. 93-103; Miller, J.E., Effects on photosynthesis, carbon allocation, and plant growth associated with air pollutant stress (1988) Assessment of Crop Loss from Air Pollutants, pp. 287-314. , eds W. 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A Biometrical Approach, 2nd Edn., , McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 633 pp; Temple, P.J., Benoit, L.F., Lennox, R.W., Reagan, C.A., Taylor, O.C., Combined effects of ozone water stress on alfalfa growth yield (1988) Journal of Environmental Quality, 17, pp. 108-113; Thompson, A.M., The oxidizing capacity of the earth's atmosphere: Probable past and future changes (1992) Science, 256, pp. 1157-1165; Thompson, C.R., Kats, G., Pippen, E.L., Isom, W.H., Effect of photochemical air pollution on two varieties of alfalfa (1976) Environmental Science Technology, 10, pp. 1237-1241; Tingey, D.T., Andersen, C.P., The physiological basis of differential plant sensitivity to changes in atmospheric quality (1991) Ecological Genetics and Air Pollution, pp. 209-235. , eds G. E. Taylor Jr, L. F. Pitelka and M. T. Clegg, Springer-Verlag, New York. },
    ABSTRACT = { Ozone (O3) is considered to be a major air pollutant that affects the yield of several sensitive crop species. Its concentration may reach phytotoxic levels several times during the growing season in Eastern Canada. This study was initiated to evaluate the O3 effects on alfalfa, a major crop species. The objective was to compare the yield and growth parameters of the main alfalfa cultivar used in Quebec, Apica, to a cultivar more tolerant to O3, Team. Effects on root starch concentrations were also examined as this parameter is an important indicator of alfalfa perennity. The results obtained have shown that the forage yield of Apica was more reduced by O3 during two growing seasons than the yield of Team. For O3 concentrations of 20 to 40 nl liter-1, yield reductions were 14-26% for Apica and 0-20% for Team. Whereas Apica could be considered more susceptible to O3 than Team, the latter has shown contrasting responses from year to year. This fact suggests that the mechanisms involved in O3-tolerance could be modulated by environmental conditions. At low O3 levels, Apica has shown reduced root growth in terms of dry matter and length. However, contrary to the current hypothesis that O3 would affect more root than shoot growth, we were unable to show a consistent alteration of the biomass allocation between the two. Ozone seems to reduce globally the growth of the whole plants. The greater O3-tolerance of Team could partly be associated to its capacity to maintain more leaves, to delay their senescence, or to keep a larger leaf:stem ratio under increasing levels of O3. At the end of the two growing seasons, the amount of starch reserves stored below ground was shown to be reduced by the current O3 levels. This reduction was mainly associated with a decrease in root biomass under O3 stress. This result support the hypothesis that O3 may accelerate alfalfa decline under field conditions. },
    KEYWORDS = { Alfalfa cultivars Growth Ozone Shoot/root ratio ozone air pollution plant growth Medicago sativa },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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