BurtonCumming1995

Référence

Burton, P.J. and Cumming, S.G. (1995) Potential effects of climatic-change on some western canadian forests, based on phenological enhancements to a patch model of forest succession. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 82(1-2):401-414.

Résumé

We enhanced the forest patch model, Zelig, to explore the implications of 2xCO(2) climate change scenarios on several forest regions in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. In addition to the processes and phenomena commonly represented in individual-based models of forest stand dynamics, we added some species-specific phenology and sire-specific frost events. The consideration of bud-break heat sum requirements, growing season limits, and chilling requirements for the induction of dormancy and cold hardiness slightly improved the ability of Zelig to predict the present composition of B.C. forests. Simulations of the predicted effects of future climatic regimes (based on the averaged predictions of four general circulation models) include some major shifts in equilibrial, forest composition and productivity. Lowland temperate coastal forests are predicted to be severely stressed because indigenous species will no longer have their winter chilling requirements met. High-elevation coastal forests are expected to increase in productivity, while interior subalpine forests are expected to remain stable in productivity but will gradually be replaced by species currently characteristic of lower elevations. Dry, interior low-elevation forests in southern B.C. are likely to persist relatively unchanged, while wet interior forests are expected to support dramatic increases in yield, primarily by western hemlock. Northern interior sub-boreal forests are likewise expected to increase in productivity through enhanced growth of lodgepole pine. Conversely, the precipitous collapse of spruce stands in the true boreal forests of northeastern B.C. is expected to be associated with reduced productivity as they are replaced by pine species. Boreal-Cordilleran and Moist Boreal Mixedwood forests in Alberta are less likely to undergo compositional change, while becoming somewhat more productive. We believe these model enhancements to be a significant improvement over existing formulations, but the resulting predictions must still be viewed with caution. Model limitations include: (1) the current inability of climate models to predict future variation in monthly temperature and precipitation; (2) sparse information on the phenological behaviour of several important tree species; and (3) a poor understanding of the degree to which growth is constrained by different suboptimal climatic events.

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@ARTICLE { BurtonCumming1995,
    AUTHOR = { Burton, P.J. and Cumming, S.G. },
    TITLE = { Potential effects of climatic-change on some western canadian forests, based on phenological enhancements to a patch model of forest succession },
    JOURNAL = { Water, Air, and Soil Pollution },
    YEAR = { 1995 },
    VOLUME = { 82 },
    PAGES = { 401-414 },
    NUMBER = { 1-2 },
    ABSTRACT = { We enhanced the forest patch model, Zelig, to explore the implications of 2xCO(2) climate change scenarios on several forest regions in British Columbia and Alberta, Canada. In addition to the processes and phenomena commonly represented in individual-based models of forest stand dynamics, we added some species-specific phenology and sire-specific frost events. The consideration of bud-break heat sum requirements, growing season limits, and chilling requirements for the induction of dormancy and cold hardiness slightly improved the ability of Zelig to predict the present composition of B.C. forests. Simulations of the predicted effects of future climatic regimes (based on the averaged predictions of four general circulation models) include some major shifts in equilibrial, forest composition and productivity. Lowland temperate coastal forests are predicted to be severely stressed because indigenous species will no longer have their winter chilling requirements met. High-elevation coastal forests are expected to increase in productivity, while interior subalpine forests are expected to remain stable in productivity but will gradually be replaced by species currently characteristic of lower elevations. Dry, interior low-elevation forests in southern B.C. are likely to persist relatively unchanged, while wet interior forests are expected to support dramatic increases in yield, primarily by western hemlock. Northern interior sub-boreal forests are likewise expected to increase in productivity through enhanced growth of lodgepole pine. Conversely, the precipitous collapse of spruce stands in the true boreal forests of northeastern B.C. is expected to be associated with reduced productivity as they are replaced by pine species. Boreal-Cordilleran and Moist Boreal Mixedwood forests in Alberta are less likely to undergo compositional change, while becoming somewhat more productive. We believe these model enhancements to be a significant improvement over existing formulations, but the resulting predictions must still be viewed with caution. Model limitations include: (1) the current inability of climate models to predict future variation in monthly temperature and precipitation; (2) sparse information on the phenological behaviour of several important tree species; and (3) a poor understanding of the degree to which growth is constrained by different suboptimal climatic events. },
}

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