GreeneMacdonaldCummingEtAl2005

Référence

Greene, D.F., Macdonald, S.E., Cumming, S.G., Swift, L. (2005) Seedbed variation from the interior through the edge of a large wildfire in Alberta. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 35(7):1640-1647.

Résumé

Despite the importance of seedbeds in the life histories of many plant species, there has been little study of the seedbeds created by wildfire in fire-prone vegetation types such as the boreal forest. Both within the interior and at the edge of a very large (>100 000 ha) 2001 wildfire in the mixedwood boreal region of Alberta, we examined the postfire duff depth and the percent coverage of seedbed types. Minimizing the effect of site and forest composition, we looked only at Picea glauca (Moench) Voss - Populus tremuloides Michx. sites burned during a single day of high fire intensity. Good seedbeds (thin humus and exposed mineral soil, with or without ash) averaged 35% coverage within the interior of the fire but varied enormously among stands. There was a weak but significant positive correlation between prefire percent white spruce basal area and percent mineral soil exposure; that is, there is some tendency for conifer stands to create the seedbeds best suited for their own germinants. Fire severity played a clear role in mineral soil exposure, which was greatest in areas with 100% canopy mortality. Mineral soil exposure was far less at the edges of the fire, averaging only 5% even in areas where all trees had been killed; the burn edge was characterized by superficial flaming combustion with no evidence of substantial duff removal via smoldering combustion. In short, the areas where white spruce seed will be most common after the fire, the edges, are where the worst seedbeds in the burn will be found. Regeneration microsites at fire edges appear to be better suited to regeneration of broadleaf species, via suckering; the persistence of white spruce in fire-prone landscapes continues to be difficult to explain. © 2005 NRC.

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@ARTICLE { GreeneMacdonaldCummingEtAl2005,
    AUTHOR = { Greene, D.F. and Macdonald, S.E. and Cumming, S.G. and Swift, L. },
    TITLE = { Seedbed variation from the interior through the edge of a large wildfire in Alberta },
    JOURNAL = { Canadian Journal of Forest Research },
    YEAR = { 2005 },
    VOLUME = { 35 },
    PAGES = { 1640-1647 },
    NUMBER = { 7 },
    NOTE = { 00455067 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 3 Export Date: 27 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: CJFRA doi: 10.1139/x05-080 Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Greene, D.F.; Department of Geography; Concordia University Montreal, Que. H2G 1M8, Canada; email: greene@alcor.concordia.ca References: Ahlgren, C.E., Some effects of fire on forest reproduction in northeastern Minnesota (1959) J. For., 57, pp. 194-200; Bergeron, Y., Gauthier, S., Kafka, V., Lefort, P., Lesieur, D., Natural fire frequency for the eastern Canadian Boreal forest: Consequences for sustainable forestry (2001) Can. J. For. Res., 31, pp. 384-391; Bergeron, Y., Leduc, A., Harvey, B., Gauthier, S., Natural fire regime: A guide for sustainable management of the Canadian boreal forest (2002) Silva Fenn., 36, pp. 81-95; Charron, I., Greene, D.F., Post-fire seedbeds and tree establishment in the southern mixedwood boreal forest (2002) Can. J. For. Res., 32, pp. 1607-1615; Chrosciewicz, Z., Evaluation of fire-produced seedbeds for Jack Pine regeneration in Central Ontario (1974) Can. J. For. Res., 4, pp. 455-457; Densmore, R.V., Juday, G.P., Zasada, J.C., Regeneration alternatives for upland white spruce after burning and logging in interior Alaska (1999) Can. J. For. Res., 29, pp. 413-423; Duchesneau, R., Morin, H., Early seedling demography in balsam fir seedling banks (1999) Can. J. For. Res., 29, pp. 1502-1509; Dyrness, C.T., Norum, R.A., The effects of experimental fires on black spruce forest floors in interior Alaska (1983) Can. J. For. Res., 13, pp. 879-893; Development and structure of the Canadian Forest Fire Behavior Prediction System (1992) For. Can. Inf. Rep. ST-X-3; Galipeau, C., Kneeshaw, D., Bergeron, Y., White spruce and balsam fir colonization of a site in the southeastern boreal forest as observed 68 years after fire (1997) Can. J. For. Res., 27, pp. 139-147; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Modelling recruitment of Populus tremuloides, Pinus banksiana, and Picea mariana following fire in the mixedwood boreal forest (1999) Can. J. For. Res., 29, pp. 462-473; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Tree recruitment from burn edges (2000) Can. J. For. Res., 30, pp. 1264-1274; Greene, D.F., Zasada, J.C., Sirois, L., Kneeshaw, D., Morin, H., Charron, I., Simard, M.-J., A review of the regeneration dynamics of North American boreal forest tree species (1999) Can. J. For. Res., 29, pp. 824-839; Greene, D.F., No, J., Bergeron, Y., Rousseau, M., Gauthier, S., Recruitment of Picea mariana, Pinus banksiana, and Populus tremuloides across a burn severity gradient following wildfire in the southern boreal forest of Quebec (2004) Can. J. For. Res., 34, pp. 1845-1857; Hely, C., Flannigan, M., Bergeron, Y., Modelling tree mortality following wildfire in the southeastern Canadian mixed-wood boreal forest (2003) For. Sci., 49 (4), pp. 566-576; Johnson, E.A., (1992) Fire and Vegetation Dynamics, , Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK; Johnson, E.A., Miyanishi, K., (2000) Forest Fires: Behavior and Ecological Effect, , Academic Press, San Diego; Kafka, V., Gauthier, S., Bergeron, Y., Fire impacts and crowning in the boreal forest: Study of a large wildfire in western Quebec (2001) Int. J. Wildland Fire, 10, pp. 119-127; Kiil, A.D., Effects of spring burning on vegetation in old partially cut spruce-aspen stands in east-central Alberta (1970) Can. For. Ser. Inf. Rep. A-X-33; Lee, P.C., Crites, S., Neitfeld, M., Nguyen, H.V., Stelfox, J.B., Characteristics and origins of deadwood material in aspen-dominated boreal forests (1997) Ecol. Appl., 7, pp. 691-701; Lutz, H.J., Ecological effects of forest fires in the interior of Alaska (1956) USDA For. Serv. Tech. Bull. 1133; Miyanishi, K., Duff consumption (2001) Forest Fires: Behaviors and Ecological Effects, pp. 437-470. , Edited by E.A. Johnson and K. Miyanishi. Academic Press, San Diego; Miyanishi, K., Johnson, E.A., Process and patterns of duff consumption in the mixedwood boreal forest (2002) Can. J. For. Res., 32, pp. 1285-1295; Mutch, R.W., Wildland fires and ecosystems: A hypothesis (1970) Ecology, 51, pp. 1046-1051; Peterson, D.L., Crown scorch and scorch height: Estimates of postfire tree condition (1985) Can. J. For. Res., 15, pp. 596-598; Quintillo, D., Alexander, M.E., Ponto, R.L., Spring fires in a semimature trembling aspen stand in central Alberta (1991) Can. For. Serv. North For. Res. Cent. Inf. Rep. NOR-C-323; Ryan, K.C., Reinhardt, E.D., Predicting post-fire mortality of seven western conifers (1988) Can. J. For. Res., 18, pp. 1291-1297; Schimmel, J., Granstro?m, A., Fire severity and vegetation response in the boreal Swedish forest (1996) Ecology, 77, pp. 1436-1450; Simard, M.J., (1999) L' E?tablisement Initial de la Re?ge?ne?ration Re?sineuse en Sous-bois Dans Le Sudouest de la Fore?t Bore?ale Que?be?coise et l'Influence du Substrat Forestier, , Ph.D. thesis, Universite? du Que?bec a? Montre?al, Montre?al, Que; Strong, W.L., (1992) Ecoregions and Ecodistricts of Alberta. Vol. 1. Alberta Forestry, Lands and Wildlife, 1. , Land information services division, Resource information branch, Edmonton, Alta; Turner, M.G., Romme, H.W., Landscape dynamics in crown fire ecosystems (1994) Landsc. Ecol., 9, pp. 59-77; Turner, M.G., Romme, R.H., Gardner, R.H., Hargrove, W.W., Effects of fire size and pattern on early succession in Yellowstone National Park (1997) Ecol. Monogr., 67, pp. 411-433; Van Wagner, C.E., Conditions for the start and spread of crownfire (1977) Can. J. For. Res., 7, pp. 23-34; Zasada, J.C., Production, dispersal and germination of white spruce and paper birch and first-year seedling establishment after the Rosie Creek fire (1985) Early Results of the Rosie Creek Fire Research Project, pp. 34-37. , Edited by G.P. Juday and C.T. Dyrness. University of Alaska, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Fairbanks, Alaska. },
    ABSTRACT = { Despite the importance of seedbeds in the life histories of many plant species, there has been little study of the seedbeds created by wildfire in fire-prone vegetation types such as the boreal forest. Both within the interior and at the edge of a very large (>100 000 ha) 2001 wildfire in the mixedwood boreal region of Alberta, we examined the postfire duff depth and the percent coverage of seedbed types. Minimizing the effect of site and forest composition, we looked only at Picea glauca (Moench) Voss - Populus tremuloides Michx. sites burned during a single day of high fire intensity. Good seedbeds (thin humus and exposed mineral soil, with or without ash) averaged 35% coverage within the interior of the fire but varied enormously among stands. There was a weak but significant positive correlation between prefire percent white spruce basal area and percent mineral soil exposure; that is, there is some tendency for conifer stands to create the seedbeds best suited for their own germinants. Fire severity played a clear role in mineral soil exposure, which was greatest in areas with 100% canopy mortality. Mineral soil exposure was far less at the edges of the fire, averaging only 5% even in areas where all trees had been killed; the burn edge was characterized by superficial flaming combustion with no evidence of substantial duff removal via smoldering combustion. In short, the areas where white spruce seed will be most common after the fire, the edges, are where the worst seedbeds in the burn will be found. Regeneration microsites at fire edges appear to be better suited to regeneration of broadleaf species, via suckering; the persistence of white spruce in fire-prone landscapes continues to be difficult to explain. © 2005 NRC. },
    KEYWORDS = { Combustion Fires Forestry Soils Vegetation Wood Boreal forests Mineral soil exposure Seedbeds Wildfire Seed boreal forest community composition forest edge regeneration wildfire Combustion Fires Forests Plants Seeds Soil Wood Alberta Canada North America Western Hemisphere World Coniferophyta Picea glauca Populus tremuloides },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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