GrenonBradleyTitus2004

Référence

Grenon, F., Bradley, R.L. and Titus, B.D. (2004) Temperature sensitivity of mineral N transformation rates, and heterotrophic nitrification: Possible factors controlling the post-disturbance mineral N flush in forest floors. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36(9):1465-1474.

Résumé

A major forest disturbance such as clearcutting may bring on a flush of mineral N in organic forest floor horizons, but the magnitude of this flush can vary markedly from one ecosystem to another. For example, it was previously established that clearcutting in a high elevation Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir (ESSF) ecosystem results in significantly higher NH4+ and NO3- concentrations, whereas clearcutting in an old-growth coastal western hemlock (CWH) ecosystem has little effect on mineral N dynamics. We hypothesized that the higher mineral N flush observed in the ESSF ecosystem is due to a greater temperature sensitivity of mineral N transformation rates, and to a lower proportion of heterotrophic nitrifiers, compared to the CWH ecosystem. To test these two hypotheses, we sampled forest floors several times over the growing season from clearcut and old-growth plots in both ecosystems, and measured gross mineral N transformation rates at field temperatures and at 10°C above field temperatures, as well as with and without acetylene to inhibit autotrophic nitrifiers. Gross NH4+ transformations rates ranged between 20 and 120 ?g N (g forest floor)-1day-1 at the ESSF site, and between 15 and 40 ?g N (g forest floor)-1day-1 at the CWH site. Higher temperature increased gross NH4+ transformation rates in forest floor samples at both sites, but the average Q10 value was higher at the ESSF site (3.15) than at the CWH site (1.25). Temperature sensitivity at the ESSF site was greater in clearcut plots (Q10=4.31) than in old-growth plots (Q10=1.98). Gross NO3- transformation rates ranged between 10 and 32 ?g N (g forest floor)-1day-1 at the ESSF site, and between 10 and 24 ?g N (g forest floor)-1day-1 at the CWH site, but there were no significant effects of temperature or clearcutting on gross NO 3- transformation rates at either site. Likewise, there were no significant differences in the proportion of heterotrophic nitrifiers between sites. Overall, our results support the view that the temperature sensitivity of microbial processes may explain the magnitude of the NH 4+ flush in some coniferous ecosystems, but we lack the evidence relating the magnitude of the NO3- flush to the proportion of heterotrophic nitrifiers. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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@ARTICLE { GrenonBradleyTitus2004,
    AUTHOR = { Grenon, F. and Bradley, R.L. and Titus, B.D. },
    TITLE = { Temperature sensitivity of mineral N transformation rates, and heterotrophic nitrification: Possible factors controlling the post-disturbance mineral N flush in forest floors },
    JOURNAL = { Soil Biology and Biochemistry },
    YEAR = { 2004 },
    VOLUME = { 36 },
    PAGES = { 1465-1474 },
    NUMBER = { 9 },
    NOTE = { 00380717 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 3 Export Date: 26 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: SBIOA doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.04.021 Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Bradley, R.L.; De?partement de Biologie; Ctr. de Rech. en Biol. Forestiere; Fac. Sci., Univ. Sherbrooke, 2500 B. Sherbrooke, Que. J1K 2R1, Canada; email: robert.bradley@usherbrooke.ca References: Barg, A.K., Edmonds, R.L., Influence of partial cutting on site microclimate, soil nitrogen dynamics, and microbial biomass in Douglas-fir stands in western Washington (1999) Can. J. For. Res., 29, pp. 705-713; Binkley, D., Hart, S., The components of nitrogen availability assessments in forest soils (1989) Adv. Soil Sci., 10, pp. 57-116; Bradley, R.L., Fyles, J.W., Method to avoid isotope discrimination during the diffusion of NH 4+ from 15N-labelled soil extracts (1996) Soil Biol. Biochem., 28, pp. 695-697; Bradley, R.L., Titus, B.D., Preston, C.P., Changes to mineral N cycling and microbial communities in black spruce humus after additions of (NH4)2SO4 and condensed tannins extracted from Kalmia angustifolia and balsam fir (2000) Soil Biol. Biochem., 32, pp. 1227-1240; Brooks, P.D., Stark, J.M., McInteer, B.B., Peston, T., Diffusion method to prepare soil extracts for automated nitrogen-15 analysis (1989) Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 53, pp. 1701-1711; Clarholm, M., Interactions of bacteria, protozoa and plants leading to mineralization of soil nitrogen (1985) Soil Biol. Biochem., 17, pp. 181-187; Duggin, J.A., Voigt, G.K., Bormann, F.H., Autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrification in response to clear-cutting northern hardwood forest (1991) Soil Biol. Biochem., 23, pp. 779-787; Finzi, A.C., Canham, C.D., Sapling growth in response to light and nitrogen availability in a southern New England forest (2000) For. Ecol. Manag., 131, pp. 153-165; Frazer, D.W., McColl, J.G., Powers, R.F., Soil nitrogen mineralization in a clearcutting chronosequence in a northern California conifer forest (1990) Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 54, pp. 1145-1152; Giardina, C.P., Ryan, M.G., Evidence that decomposition rates of organic carbon in mineral soil do not vary with temperature (2000) Nature, 404, pp. 858-861; Green, R.N., Klinka, K., (1994) A Field Guide to Site Identification and Interpretation for the Vancouver Forest Region. Land Management Handbook, 28. , B.C. Ministry of Forests. p. 285; Grenon, F., Bradley, R.L., Joanisse, G., Titus, B.D., Prescott, C.E., Mineral N availability for conifer growth following clearcutting: Responsive versus non-responsive ecosystems (2004) For. Ecol. Manag., 188, pp. 305-316; Hart, S.C., Nason, G.E., Myrold, D.D., Perry, D.A., Dynamics of gross nitrogen transformations in an old-growth forest-the carbon connection (1994) Ecology, 75, pp. 880-891; Hart, S.C., Stark, J.M., Davidson, E.A., Firestone, M.K., Nitrogen mineralization, immobilization, and nitrification (1994) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2: Microbial and Biochemical Properties, pp. 985-1016. , R.W. et al. Weaver. Madison, WI: Soil Science Society of America; Hart, S.C., Binkley, D., Perry, D.A., Influence of red alder on soil nitrogen transformations in two conifer forests of contrasting productivity (1997) Soil Biol. Biochem., 29, pp. 1111-1123; Insam, H., Are the soil microbial biomass and basal respiration governed by the climatic regime? (1990) Soil Biol. Biochem., 22, pp. 525-532; Joslin, J.D., Wolfe, M.H., Temperature increase accelerates nitrate release from high-elevation red spruce soils (1993) Can. J. For. Res., 23, pp. 756-759; Keenan, R.J., Prescott, C.E., Kimmins, J.P., Mass and nutrient content of woody debris and forest floor in western red cedar and western hemlock forests on northern Vancouver Island (1993) Can. J. For. Res., 23, pp. 1052-1059; Keenan, R.J., Prescott, C.E., Kimmins, J.P., Pastor, J., Dewey, B., Litter decomposition in western red cedar and western hemlock forests on northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia (1996) Can. J. Bot., 74, pp. 1626-1634; Killham, K., Nitrification in coniferous forest soils (1990) Plant Soil, 128, pp. 31-44; Killham, K., (1994) Soil Ecology, , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Kim, C., Sharik, T.L., Jurgensen, M.F., Dickson, R.E., Buckley, D.S., Effects of nitrogen availability on northern red oak seedling growth in oak and pine stands in northern lower Michigan (1996) Can. J. For. 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Microbiol., 48, pp. 802-806; Shaver, G.R., Canadell, J., Chapin, F.S., Gurevitch, J., Harte, J., Henry, G., Ineson, P., Rustad, L., Global warming and terrestrial ecosystems: A conceptual framework for analysis (2000) Bioscience, 50, pp. 871-882; (1998) Third Ed. the Canadian System of Soil Classification, , Ottawa: NRC Research Press. p. 164; Stams, A.J.M., Flameling, E.M., Marnette, E.C.L., The importance of autotrophic versus heterotrophic oxidation of atmospheric ammonium in forest ecosystems with acid soil (1990) FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 74, pp. 337-344; Ste-Marie, C., Pare, D., Soil, pH and N availability effects on net nitrification in the forest floors of a range of boreal forest stands (1999) Soil Biol. Biochem., 31, pp. 1579-1589; Verburg, P.S.J., Van Dam, D., Hefting, M.M., Tietema, A., Microbial transformations of C and N in a boreal forest floor as affected by temperature (1999) Plant Soil, 208, pp. 187-197; Verchot, L.V., Holmes, Z., Mulon, L., Groffman, P.M., Lovett, G.M., Gross vs net rates of N mineralization and nitrification as indicators of functional differences between forest types (2001) Soil Biol. Biochem., 33, pp. 1889-1901; Weetman, G.F., Prescott, C.E., (2001) The Structure, Functioning and Management of Old-growth Cedar-hemlock-fir Forests on Vancouver Island, British Columbia the Forest Handbook. Part 4: Case Studies of Sustainable Management, 2, pp. 275-287. , J. Evans. Oxford: Blackwell Sciene. },
    ABSTRACT = { A major forest disturbance such as clearcutting may bring on a flush of mineral N in organic forest floor horizons, but the magnitude of this flush can vary markedly from one ecosystem to another. For example, it was previously established that clearcutting in a high elevation Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir (ESSF) ecosystem results in significantly higher NH4+ and NO3- concentrations, whereas clearcutting in an old-growth coastal western hemlock (CWH) ecosystem has little effect on mineral N dynamics. We hypothesized that the higher mineral N flush observed in the ESSF ecosystem is due to a greater temperature sensitivity of mineral N transformation rates, and to a lower proportion of heterotrophic nitrifiers, compared to the CWH ecosystem. To test these two hypotheses, we sampled forest floors several times over the growing season from clearcut and old-growth plots in both ecosystems, and measured gross mineral N transformation rates at field temperatures and at 10°C above field temperatures, as well as with and without acetylene to inhibit autotrophic nitrifiers. Gross NH4+ transformations rates ranged between 20 and 120 ?g N (g forest floor)-1day-1 at the ESSF site, and between 15 and 40 ?g N (g forest floor)-1day-1 at the CWH site. Higher temperature increased gross NH4+ transformation rates in forest floor samples at both sites, but the average Q10 value was higher at the ESSF site (3.15) than at the CWH site (1.25). Temperature sensitivity at the ESSF site was greater in clearcut plots (Q10=4.31) than in old-growth plots (Q10=1.98). Gross NO3- transformation rates ranged between 10 and 32 ?g N (g forest floor)-1day-1 at the ESSF site, and between 10 and 24 ?g N (g forest floor)-1day-1 at the CWH site, but there were no significant effects of temperature or clearcutting on gross NO 3- transformation rates at either site. Likewise, there were no significant differences in the proportion of heterotrophic nitrifiers between sites. Overall, our results support the view that the temperature sensitivity of microbial processes may explain the magnitude of the NH 4+ flush in some coniferous ecosystems, but we lack the evidence relating the magnitude of the NO3- flush to the proportion of heterotrophic nitrifiers. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. },
    KEYWORDS = { Clearcutting Forest floor Gross mineral N transformation rates Heterotrophic nitrification Soil temperature },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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