HuangMaRossiEtAl2020

Reference

Huang, J.-G., Ma, Q., Rossi, S., Biondi, F., Deslauriers, A., Fonti, P., Liang, E., Mäkinen, H., Oberhuber, W., Rathgeber, C. B. K., Tognetti, R., Treml, V., Yang, B., Zhang, J.-L., Antonucci, S., Bergeron, Y., Camarero, J.J., Campelo, F., Cufar, K., Cuny, H.E., De Luis, M., Giovannelli, A., Gricar, J., Gruber, A., Gryc, V., Güney, A., Guo, X., Huang, W., Jyske, T., Kaspar, J., King, G., Krause, C., Lemay, A., Liu, F., Lombardi, F., Martinez del Castillo, E., Morin, H., Nabais, C., Nöjd, P., Peters, R.L., Prislan, P., Saracino, A., Swidrak, I., Vavrcik, H., Vieira, J., Yu, B, Zhang, S., Zeng, Q., Zhang, Y., Ziaco, E. (2020) Photoperiod and temperature as dominant environmental drivers triggering secondary growth resumption in Northern Hemisphere conifers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (URL )

Abstract

Forest trees can live for hundreds to thousands of years, and they play a critical role in mitigating global warming by fixing approximately 15\% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions annually by wood formation. However, the environmental factors triggering wood formation onset in springtime and the cellular mechanisms underlying this onset remain poorly understood, since wood forms beneath the bark and is difficult to monitor. We report that the onset of wood formation in Northern Hemisphere conifers is driven primarily by photoperiod and mean annual temperature. Understanding the unique relationships between exogenous factors and wood formation could aid in predicting how forest ecosystems respond and adapt to climate warming, while improving the assessment of long-term and high-resolution observations of global biogeochemical cycles.Wood formation consumes around 15\% of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions per year and plays a critical role in long-term sequestration of carbon on Earth. However, the exogenous factors driving wood formation onset and the underlying cellular mechanisms are still poorly understood and quantified, and this hampers an effective assessment of terrestrial forest productivity and carbon budget under global warming. Here, we used an extensive collection of unique datasets of weekly xylem tissue formation (wood formation) from 21 coniferous species across the Northern Hemisphere (latitudes 23 to 67{\textdegree}N) to present a quantitative demonstration that the onset of wood formation in Northern Hemisphere conifers is primarily driven by photoperiod and mean annual temperature (MAT), and only secondarily by spring forcing, winter chilling, and moisture availability. Photoperiod interacts with MAT and plays the dominant role in regulating the onset of secondary meristem growth, contrary to its as-yet-unquantified role in affecting the springtime phenology of primary meristems. The unique relationships between exogenous factors and wood formation could help to predict how forest ecosystems respond and adapt to climate warming and could provide a better understanding of the feedback occurring between vegetation and climate that is mediated by phenology. Our study quantifies the role of major environmental drivers for incorporation into state-of-the-art Earth system models (ESMs), thereby providing an improved assessment of long-term and high-resolution observations of biogeochemical cycles across terrestrial biomes.The data that support the findings of this study are provided in Dataset S1. Readers can access the full code in Code S1.

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@ARTICLE { HuangMaRossiEtAl2020,
    AUTHOR = { Huang, J.-G. and Ma, Q. and Rossi, S. and Biondi, F. and Deslauriers, A. and Fonti, P. and Liang, E. and Mäkinen, H. and Oberhuber, W. and Rathgeber, C. B. K. and Tognetti, R. and Treml, V. and Yang, B. and Zhang, J.-L. and Antonucci, S. and Bergeron, Y. and Camarero, J.J. and Campelo, F. and Cufar, K. and Cuny, H.E. and De Luis, M. and Giovannelli, A. and Gricar, J. and Gruber, A. and Gryc, V. and Güney, A. and Guo, X. and Huang, W. and Jyske, T. and Kaspar, J. and King, G. and Krause, C. and Lemay, A. and Liu, F. and Lombardi, F. and Martinez del Castillo, E. and Morin, H. and Nabais, C. and Nöjd, P. and Peters, R.L. and Prislan, P. and Saracino, A. and Swidrak, I. and Vavrcik, H. and Vieira, J. and Yu, B and Zhang, S. and Zeng, Q. and Zhang, Y. and Ziaco, E. },
    TITLE = { Photoperiod and temperature as dominant environmental drivers triggering secondary growth resumption in Northern Hemisphere conifers },
    JOURNAL = { Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences },
    YEAR = { 2020 },
    ISSN = { 0027-8424 },
    ABSTRACT = { Forest trees can live for hundreds to thousands of years, and they play a critical role in mitigating global warming by fixing approximately 15\% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions annually by wood formation. However, the environmental factors triggering wood formation onset in springtime and the cellular mechanisms underlying this onset remain poorly understood, since wood forms beneath the bark and is difficult to monitor. We report that the onset of wood formation in Northern Hemisphere conifers is driven primarily by photoperiod and mean annual temperature. Understanding the unique relationships between exogenous factors and wood formation could aid in predicting how forest ecosystems respond and adapt to climate warming, while improving the assessment of long-term and high-resolution observations of global biogeochemical cycles.Wood formation consumes around 15\% of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions per year and plays a critical role in long-term sequestration of carbon on Earth. However, the exogenous factors driving wood formation onset and the underlying cellular mechanisms are still poorly understood and quantified, and this hampers an effective assessment of terrestrial forest productivity and carbon budget under global warming. Here, we used an extensive collection of unique datasets of weekly xylem tissue formation (wood formation) from 21 coniferous species across the Northern Hemisphere (latitudes 23 to 67{\textdegree}N) to present a quantitative demonstration that the onset of wood formation in Northern Hemisphere conifers is primarily driven by photoperiod and mean annual temperature (MAT), and only secondarily by spring forcing, winter chilling, and moisture availability. Photoperiod interacts with MAT and plays the dominant role in regulating the onset of secondary meristem growth, contrary to its as-yet-unquantified role in affecting the springtime phenology of primary meristems. The unique relationships between exogenous factors and wood formation could help to predict how forest ecosystems respond and adapt to climate warming and could provide a better understanding of the feedback occurring between vegetation and climate that is mediated by phenology. Our study quantifies the role of major environmental drivers for incorporation into state-of-the-art Earth system models (ESMs), thereby providing an improved assessment of long-term and high-resolution observations of biogeochemical cycles across terrestrial biomes.The data that support the findings of this study are provided in Dataset S1. Readers can access the full code in Code S1. },
    DOI = { 10.1073/pnas.2007058117 },
    ELOCATION-ID = { 202007058 },
    EPRINT = { https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/08/04/2007058117.full.pdf },
    PUBLISHER = { National Academy of Sciences },
    URL = { https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/08/04/2007058117 },
}

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