KalacskaBellArturoEtAl2009

Reference

Kalacska, M., Bell, L.S., Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa, G., Caelli, T. (2009) The application of remote sensing for detecting mass graves: An experimental animal case study from Costa Rica. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 54(1):159-166. (Scopus )

Abstract

Detection of mass graves utilizing the hyperspectral information in airborne or satellite imagery is an untested application of remote sensing technology. We examined the in situ spectral reflectance of an experimental animal mass grave in a tropical moist forest environment and compared it to an identically constructed false grave which was refilled with soil, but contained no cattle carcasses over the course of a 16-month period. The separability of the in situ reflectance spectra was examined with a combination of feature selection and five different nonparametric pattern classifiers. We also scaled up the analysis to examine the spectral signature of the same experimental mass grave from an air-borne hyperspectral image collected 1 month following burial. Our results indicate that at both scales (in situ and airborne), the experimental grave had a spectral signature that was distinct and therefore detectable from the false grave. In addition, we observed that vegetation regeneration was severely inhibited over the mass grave containing cattle carcasses for up to a period of 16 months. This experimental study has demonstrated the real utility of airborne hyperspectral imagery for the detection of a relatively small mass grave (5 m<sup>2</sup>) within a specific climatic zone. Other climatic zones will require similar actualistic modeling studies, but it is clear that the applications of this technology provide the international community with both an early detection tool and a tool for ongoing monitoring. © 2009 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

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@ARTICLE { KalacskaBellArturoEtAl2009,
    AUTHOR = { Kalacska, M. and Bell, L.S. and Arturo Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. and Caelli, T. },
    TITLE = { The application of remote sensing for detecting mass graves: An experimental animal case study from Costa Rica },
    JOURNAL = { Journal of Forensic Sciences },
    YEAR = { 2009 },
    VOLUME = { 54 },
    PAGES = { 159-166 },
    NUMBER = { 1 },
    ABSTRACT = { Detection of mass graves utilizing the hyperspectral information in airborne or satellite imagery is an untested application of remote sensing technology. We examined the in situ spectral reflectance of an experimental animal mass grave in a tropical moist forest environment and compared it to an identically constructed false grave which was refilled with soil, but contained no cattle carcasses over the course of a 16-month period. The separability of the in situ reflectance spectra was examined with a combination of feature selection and five different nonparametric pattern classifiers. We also scaled up the analysis to examine the spectral signature of the same experimental mass grave from an air-borne hyperspectral image collected 1 month following burial. Our results indicate that at both scales (in situ and airborne), the experimental grave had a spectral signature that was distinct and therefore detectable from the false grave. In addition, we observed that vegetation regeneration was severely inhibited over the mass grave containing cattle carcasses for up to a period of 16 months. This experimental study has demonstrated the real utility of airborne hyperspectral imagery for the detection of a relatively small mass grave (5 m<sup>2</sup>) within a specific climatic zone. Other climatic zones will require similar actualistic modeling studies, but it is clear that the applications of this technology provide the international community with both an early detection tool and a tool for ongoing monitoring. © 2009 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. },
    COMMENT = { Export Date: 10 February 2010 Source: Scopus CODEN: JFSCA doi: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2008.00938.x },
    ISSN = { 00221198 (ISSN) },
    KEYWORDS = { Decomposition, Forensic science, Human, Hyperspectral, Mammal, Mass graves, Remote sensing, Spectrometry, Tropical environment, article, carcass, cattle, Costa Rica, decomposition, forensic medicine, priority journal, remote sensing, spectroscopy, technology, Aircraft, Animals, Burial, Cattle, Costa Rica, Forensic Anthropology, Infrared Rays, Light, Models, Animal, Photography, Radiation, Spectrum Analysis, Trees, Tropical Climate },
    OWNER = { Luc },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2010.02.10 },
    URL = { http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-58149197938&partnerID=40&md5=2bd373bb5cf08590be395b2eb05e9a2b },
}

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