DesplandSantacruz2020

Reference

Despland, E., Santacruz, P.G. (2020) Top-down and bottom-up controls on an herbivore on a native and introduced plant in a tropical agricultural landscape. PeerJ, 2020(3). (Scopus )

Abstract

The recent introduction in a tropical agricultural environment of a weedy open-habitat plant (Solanum myriacanthum) and subsequent host range expansion of a common forest-edge butterfly (Mechanitis menapis) onto that plant provides an opportunity to examine reconfiguration of tritrophic networks in human-impacted landscapes. The objectives of this study were (1) determine if the caterpillars on the exotic host are more or less limited by plant defenses (bottom-up forces) and if they experience enemy release (decrease of top-down pressure) and (2) define how anthropic open pasture habitat influences the herbivore's tritrophic niche. Field and laboratory monitoring of larval survival and performance on a native (Solanum acerifolium) host plant and the exotic (S. myriacanthum) host plant were conducted in the Mindo Valley, Ecuador. Plant physical defenses were also measured. Results showed that larval mortality was mostly top-down on S. acerifolium, linked to parasitism, but mostly bottom-up on S. myriacanthum, possibly linked to observed increased plant defenses. Thus, in the absence of co-evolved relationships, herbivores on the exotic host experienced little top-down regulation, but stronger bottom-up pressures from plant defenses. These findings provide a rare empirical example of enemy-free space as a mechanism underlying host-range expansion. S. myriacanthum was less colonized in open pastures than in semi-shaded habitats (forest edges, thickets): fewer eggs were found, suggesting limited dispersal of adult butterflies into the harsh open environments, and the survival rate of first instar larvae was lower than on semi-shaded plants, likely linked to the stronger defenses of sun-grown leaves. These findings show how environmental conditions modulate the rewiring of trophic networks in heavily impacted landscapes, and limit a biocontrol by a native herbivore on an invasive plant in open habitats. Copyright © 2020 Despland and Santacruz.

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@ARTICLE { DesplandSantacruz2020,
    AUTHOR = { Despland, E. and Santacruz, P.G. },
    JOURNAL = { PeerJ },
    TITLE = { Top-down and bottom-up controls on an herbivore on a native and introduced plant in a tropical agricultural landscape },
    YEAR = { 2020 },
    NOTE = { cited By 0 },
    NUMBER = { 3 },
    VOLUME = { 2020 },
    ABSTRACT = { The recent introduction in a tropical agricultural environment of a weedy open-habitat plant (Solanum myriacanthum) and subsequent host range expansion of a common forest-edge butterfly (Mechanitis menapis) onto that plant provides an opportunity to examine reconfiguration of tritrophic networks in human-impacted landscapes. The objectives of this study were (1) determine if the caterpillars on the exotic host are more or less limited by plant defenses (bottom-up forces) and if they experience enemy release (decrease of top-down pressure) and (2) define how anthropic open pasture habitat influences the herbivore's tritrophic niche. Field and laboratory monitoring of larval survival and performance on a native (Solanum acerifolium) host plant and the exotic (S. myriacanthum) host plant were conducted in the Mindo Valley, Ecuador. Plant physical defenses were also measured. Results showed that larval mortality was mostly top-down on S. acerifolium, linked to parasitism, but mostly bottom-up on S. myriacanthum, possibly linked to observed increased plant defenses. Thus, in the absence of co-evolved relationships, herbivores on the exotic host experienced little top-down regulation, but stronger bottom-up pressures from plant defenses. These findings provide a rare empirical example of enemy-free space as a mechanism underlying host-range expansion. S. myriacanthum was less colonized in open pastures than in semi-shaded habitats (forest edges, thickets): fewer eggs were found, suggesting limited dispersal of adult butterflies into the harsh open environments, and the survival rate of first instar larvae was lower than on semi-shaded plants, likely linked to the stronger defenses of sun-grown leaves. These findings show how environmental conditions modulate the rewiring of trophic networks in heavily impacted landscapes, and limit a biocontrol by a native herbivore on an invasive plant in open habitats. Copyright © 2020 Despland and Santacruz. },
    AFFILIATION = { Biology Department, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Museo Interactivo de Ciencias, Quito, Ecuador },
    ART_NUMBER = { e8782 },
    AUTHOR_KEYWORDS = { Caterpillars; Host range; Introduced species; Ithomiinae; Neotropics; Plant-insect interactions; Solanum; Tritrophic },
    DOCUMENT_TYPE = { Article },
    DOI = { 10.7717/peerj.8782 },
    SOURCE = { Scopus },
    URL = { https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85083494982&doi=10.7717%2fpeerj.8782&partnerID=40&md5=908aeced946a14e5099ac9a8f61ca212 },
}

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