ImbeauDesrochers2002a

Référence

Imbeau, L., Desrochers, A. (2002) Area sensitivity and edge avoidance: The case of the Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) in a managed forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 164(1-3):249-256.

Résumé

Given the extensive progression of industrial forestry in boreal regions that reduces the area of old-growth forests and considerably increases the amount of sharp edges, important declines are to be expected among old-forest specialists area-sensitive or edge-avoiding boreal birds. The Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) is likely to be one of the species most negatively affected by boreal forestry and is possibly sensitive to forest area and edges. In this study, we quantify the area sensitivity and edge-avoidance of the Three-toed Woodpecker by analyzing its pattern of occurrence at 100 playback stations that had from 8 to 100% forest cover within a 300 m radius. Behavioral observations were also conducted to further investigate its response to edges in logged forests using foraging locations in relation to the nearest clear-cut border. Moreover, we document their foraging movement patterns in two contrasting landscapes (continuous versus shredded forests after logging). Although the occurrence of Three-toed Woodpeckers was highly related to the area of suitable habitat around the playback station, this relationship was quasi-linear and no critical threshold was found within the range of forest cover sampled. The amount of edge did not provide additional information on woodpecker occurrence. Individual woodpeckers in shredded forests did not select foraging trees further away from clear-cut edges than available ones. However, based on the results of the movement path analysis, continuous forests might provide better nesting habitat than residual, shredded forests. Indeed, spatial configuration of residual forest seemed to highly constrain foraging movements of this species because of its strong avoidance of open areas. Considering other studies conducted on forest birds, such modified movement patterns could be particularly harmful while both adults must feed their nestlings and behave as central place foragers. Therefore, even if no pattern of area-sensitivity or edge-avoidance were found, harmful consequences of forest shredding following forest logging may still occur for boreal species such as the Three-toed Woodpecker. However, residual forests strips are essential to maintain this species within managed areas, its population density within such residual forests being comparable to the one obtained in continuous forests. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

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@ARTICLE { ImbeauDesrochers2002a,
    AUTHOR = { Imbeau, L. and Desrochers, A. },
    TITLE = { Area sensitivity and edge avoidance: The case of the Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) in a managed forest },
    JOURNAL = { Forest Ecology and Management },
    YEAR = { 2002 },
    VOLUME = { 164 },
    PAGES = { 249-256 },
    NUMBER = { 1-3 },
    NOTE = { 03781127 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 6 Export Date: 27 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: FECMD doi: 10.1016/S0378-1127(01)00598-9 Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Imbeau, L.; Grp. Rech. Ecol. Forest. Interuniv.; Departement des Sciences Biologiques; Universite du Quebec a Montreal; Succursale Centre-Ville Montre?al, Que. H3C 3P8, Canada; email: louisimbeau@hotmail.com References: Andre?n, H., Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: A review (1994) Oikos, 71, pp. 355-366; Bayne, E.M., Hobson, K.A., Comparing the effects of landscape fragmentation by forestry and agriculture on predation of artificial nests (1997) Conserv. Biol., 11, pp. 1418-1429; Bovet, P., Benhamou, S., Optimal sinuosity in central place foraging movements (1991) Anim. Behav., 42, pp. 57-62; Bryant, D., Nielsen, D., Tangley, L., (1997) The Last Frontier Forests: Ecosystems and Economies on the Edge, p. 42. , World Resources Institute, Washington, DC; Carlson, A., The effect of habitat loss on a deciduous forest specialist species: The White-backed Woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos) (2000) For. Ecol. Manage., 131, pp. 215-221; Darveau, M., Beauchesne, P., Be?langer, L., Huot, J., Larue, P., Riparian forest strips as habitat for breeding birds in boreal forest (1995) J. Wildlife Manage., 59, pp. 67-78; Desrochers, A., Age and foraging success in European blackbirds: Variation between and within individuals (1992) Anim. Behav., 43, pp. 885-894; Desrochers, A., Fortin, M.-J., Understanding avian responses to forest boundaries: A case study with chickadee winter flocks (2000) Oikos, 91, pp. 376-384; Drolet, B., Desrochers, A., Fortin, M.-J., Effects of landscape structure on nesting songbird distribution in a harvested boreal forest (1999) Condor, 101, pp. 699-704; Fayt, P., Available insect prey in bark patches selected by the Three-toed Woodpecker Picoides tridactylus prior to reproduction (1999) Ornis Fennica, 76, pp. 135-140; Feinsinger, P., Habitat "shredding" (1997) Principles of Conservation Biology, pp. 258-260. , Meffe, G.K., Carroll, C.R. (Eds.). Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA, USA; Franklin, J.F., Berg, D.R., Thornburgh, D.A., Tappeiner, J.C., Alternative silvicultural approaches to timber harvesting: Variable retention harvest systems (1997) Creating A Forestry for the 21st Century: the Science of Ecosystem Management, pp. 111-140. , Kohm, K.A., Franklin, J.F. (Eds.). Island Press, Washington, DC; Freemark, K.E., Collins, B., Landscape ecology of birds breeding in temperate forest fragments (1992) Ecology and Conservation of Neotropical Migrant Landbirds, pp. 443-454. , Hagan III, J.M., Johnston, D.W. (Eds.). Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC; Gingras, J.-F., (1997) La coupe rase avec blocs re?siduels ou avec se?parateurs de coupe: une analyse e?conomique comparative, , Institut canadien de recherches en ge?nie forestier, Fiche Technique FT-263; Goggans, R., Dixon, R.D., Seminara, C.L., (1989) Habitat use by Three-toed and Black-backed Woodpeckers, p. 43. , Deschutes National Forest, Oregon, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. Nongame Wildlife Program. USDA Deschutes National Forest. Technical Report 87-3-02; (1998) Manuel d'ame?nagement forestier - Documents d'annexes, , Ministe?re des Ressources naturelles, Charlesbourg, Que?bec, Canada; Haila, Y., Hanski, I.K., Raivio, S., Turnover of breeding birds in small forest fragments: The "sampling" colonization hypothesis corroborated (1993) Ecology, 74, pp. 714-725; Hinsley, S.A., The costs of multiple patch use by birds (2000) Landscape Ecol., 15, pp. 765-775; Huhta, E., Jokima?ki, J., Rahko, P., Breeding success of pied flycatchers in artificial forest edges: The effect of a suboptimally shaped foraging area (1999) Auk, 116, pp. 528-535; Hurn, J., (1993) Differential GPS Explained, p. 55. , Trimble Navigation, Sunnyvale, CA, USA; Imbeau, L., Savard, J.-P.L., Gagnon, R., Comparing bird assemblages in successional black spruce stands originating from fire and logging (1999) Can. J. Zool., 77, pp. 1850-1860; Imbeau, L., Mo?nkko?nen, M., Desrochers, A., Long-term effects of forestry on birds of the eastern Canadian boreal forests: A comparison with Fennoscandia (2001) Conserv. Biol., 15, pp. 1151-1162; Imbeau, L., Desrochers, A., Foraging ecology and use of drumming trees by Three-toed Woodpeckers J. Wildlife Manage., , in press; Kouki, J., Va?a?na?nen, A., Impoverishment of resident old-growth forest bird assemblages along an isolation gradient of protected areas in eastern Finland (2000) Ornis Fennica, 77, pp. 145-154; Machlis, L., Dood, P.W.D., Fentress, J.C., The pooling fallacy: Problems arising when individuals contribute more than one observation to the data set (1985) Zeitschrift fu?r Tierpsychologie, 68, pp. 201-214; Machtans, C.S., Villard, M.-A., Hannon, S.J., Use of riparian buffer strips as movement corridors by forest birds (1996) Conserv. 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Zool. Fennici., 24, pp. 281-294; Whitcomb, R.F., Lynch, J.F., Klimkiewicz, M.K., Robbins, C.S., Whitcomb, B.L., Bystrak, D., Effects of forest fragmentation on avifauna of the eastern deciduous forest (1981) Forest Island Dynamics in Man-Dominated Landscapes, pp. 125-205. , Burgess, R.L., Sharpe, D.M. (Eds.). Springer, New York; Winkler, H., Christie, D.A., Nurney, D., (1995) Woodpeckers, A Guide to the Woodpeckers of the World, p. 406. , Houghton Mifflin, New York; Zar, J.H., (1998) Biostatistical Analysis, 4th Edition, , Prentice-Hall, NJ, USA. },
    ABSTRACT = { Given the extensive progression of industrial forestry in boreal regions that reduces the area of old-growth forests and considerably increases the amount of sharp edges, important declines are to be expected among old-forest specialists area-sensitive or edge-avoiding boreal birds. The Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) is likely to be one of the species most negatively affected by boreal forestry and is possibly sensitive to forest area and edges. In this study, we quantify the area sensitivity and edge-avoidance of the Three-toed Woodpecker by analyzing its pattern of occurrence at 100 playback stations that had from 8 to 100% forest cover within a 300 m radius. Behavioral observations were also conducted to further investigate its response to edges in logged forests using foraging locations in relation to the nearest clear-cut border. Moreover, we document their foraging movement patterns in two contrasting landscapes (continuous versus shredded forests after logging). Although the occurrence of Three-toed Woodpeckers was highly related to the area of suitable habitat around the playback station, this relationship was quasi-linear and no critical threshold was found within the range of forest cover sampled. The amount of edge did not provide additional information on woodpecker occurrence. Individual woodpeckers in shredded forests did not select foraging trees further away from clear-cut edges than available ones. However, based on the results of the movement path analysis, continuous forests might provide better nesting habitat than residual, shredded forests. Indeed, spatial configuration of residual forest seemed to highly constrain foraging movements of this species because of its strong avoidance of open areas. Considering other studies conducted on forest birds, such modified movement patterns could be particularly harmful while both adults must feed their nestlings and behave as central place foragers. Therefore, even if no pattern of area-sensitivity or edge-avoidance were found, harmful consequences of forest shredding following forest logging may still occur for boreal species such as the Three-toed Woodpecker. However, residual forests strips are essential to maintain this species within managed areas, its population density within such residual forests being comparable to the one obtained in continuous forests. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. },
    KEYWORDS = { Area sensitivity Edges Habitat loss Old-growth forests Three-toed Woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) Forestry Logging (forestry) Area sensitivity Ecology avoidance reaction edge effect habitat loss habitat use old-growth forest silviculture Aves Picidae Picoides Picoides tridactylus Tridactylus },
    OWNER = { racinep },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.09.07 },
}

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