ImbeauDesrochers2002

Référence

Imbeau, L., Desrochers, A. (2002) Foraging ecology and use of drumming trees by three-toed woodpeckers. Journal of Wildlife Management, 66(1):222-231.

Résumé

Among boreal forest bird species, the three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) is closely associated with old-growth forests (>120 years), and possibly the most negatively affected by long-term changes induced by commercial forestry in eastern Canada. Part of this conflict is related to the woodpecker's use of standing dead trees as nesting sites. Moreover, this woodpecker's foraging behavior and its choice of feeding and drumming substrates may increase its vulnerability in managed forests. We describe foraging behavior of three-toed woodpeckers, and characterize foraging and drumming trees used by this species in Que?bec's black spruce (Picea mariana) forests. During summer (May-Jul) and mid-winter (Jan-Feb), birds of both sexes used a highly specialized feeding technique consistent with searching for bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Snags were highly preferred over live trees as foraging substrates. Snags used for foraging had a greater diameter at breast height (dbh) and were less deteriorated than paired nearest available snags. When live trees were selected for foraging, they also had a greater dbh but were more deteriorated than nearest available live trees. Thus, only a limited number of trees had all characteristics preferred by foraging woodpeckers, probably as a result of the ecology of its phloem-boring prey. Snags also were highly preferred over live trees as drumming substrates. Drumming snags differed from paired nearest available snags by having a broken top, less bark cover, and a lower deterioration class, which probably provided better acoustic towers for territorial birds. Given the extensive use of snags with different characteristics for foraging and drumming by three-toed woodpeckers, models estimating snag requirements for this species based only on nesting requirements are probably of limited use to maintain populations in managed areas. Wildlife habitat management objectives that specifically require the maintenance and renewal of snags in early decaying stages found in old-growth forests are essential to the conservation of this woodpecker species in managed forests.

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@ARTICLE { ImbeauDesrochers2002,
    AUTHOR = { Imbeau, L. and Desrochers, A. },
    TITLE = { Foraging ecology and use of drumming trees by three-toed woodpeckers },
    JOURNAL = { Journal of Wildlife Management },
    YEAR = { 2002 },
    VOLUME = { 66 },
    PAGES = { 222-231 },
    NUMBER = { 1 },
    NOTE = { 0022541X (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 11 Export Date: 27 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: JWMAA Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Imbeau, L.; Grp. Rech. Ecol. Forest. Inter-Univ.; Departement des Sciences Biologiques; Universite du Quebec a Montreal; Succursale Centre-Ville Montre?al, Que PQ, H3C 3P8, Canada; email: louisimbeau@hotmail.com References: Agresti, A., (1996) An introduction to categorical data analysis, , John Wiley \& Sons, New York, USA; Aule?n, G., Increasing insect abundance by killing deciduous trees: A method of improving the food situation for endangered woodpeckers (1991) Holarctic Ecology, 14, pp. 68-80; Bergeron, D., Darveau, M., Desrochers, A., Savard, J.-P.L., (1997) Impact de l'abondance des chicots sur les communaute?s aviaires et la sauvagine des fore?ts conifie?riennes et feuillues du Que?bec me?ridional, , Service canadien de la faune, re?gion du Que?bec, Environnement Canada, Sainte-Foy, Se?rie de rapports techniques 271F; Bergeron, Y., Harvey, B., Leduc, A., Gauthier, S., Forest management guidelines based on natural disturbance dynamics: Stand- and forest-level considerations (1999) Forestry Chronicle, 75, pp. 49-54; Bryant, D., Nielsen, D., Tangley, L., (1997) The last frontier forests: ecosystems \& economies on the edge, , World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C., USA; Bull, E.L., Parks, C.G., Torgersen, T.R., (1997) Trees and logs important to wildlife in the interior Columbia River basin, , U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-391; Conner, R.N., Snag management for cavity nesting birds (1978) Proceedings of the Workshop, Management of Southern Forests for Nongame Birds, pp. 120-128. , U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report SE-14; Coulson, R.N., Witter, J.A., (1984) Forest entomology: ecology and management, , John Wiley \& Sons, New York, USA; Desrochers, A., Age and foraging success in European blackbirds: Variation between and within individuals (1992) Animal Behaviour, 43, pp. 885-894; Dickson, J.G., Conner, R.N., Williamson, J.H., Snag retention increases bird use of a clear-cut (1983) Journal of Wildlife Management, 47, pp. 799-804; Eberhardt, L.S., A test of an environmental advertisement hypothesis for the function of drumming in yellow-bellied sapsuckers (1997) Condor, 99, pp. 798-803; Fayt, P., Available insect prey in bark patches selected by the three-toed woodpecker Picoides tridactylus prior to reproduction (1999) Ornis Fennica, 76, pp. 135-140; Feinsinger, P., Habitat "shredding" (1997) Principles of conservation biology, pp. 258-260. , G. 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    ABSTRACT = { Among boreal forest bird species, the three-toed woodpecker (Picoides tridactylus) is closely associated with old-growth forests (>120 years), and possibly the most negatively affected by long-term changes induced by commercial forestry in eastern Canada. Part of this conflict is related to the woodpecker's use of standing dead trees as nesting sites. Moreover, this woodpecker's foraging behavior and its choice of feeding and drumming substrates may increase its vulnerability in managed forests. We describe foraging behavior of three-toed woodpeckers, and characterize foraging and drumming trees used by this species in Que?bec's black spruce (Picea mariana) forests. During summer (May-Jul) and mid-winter (Jan-Feb), birds of both sexes used a highly specialized feeding technique consistent with searching for bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Snags were highly preferred over live trees as foraging substrates. Snags used for foraging had a greater diameter at breast height (dbh) and were less deteriorated than paired nearest available snags. When live trees were selected for foraging, they also had a greater dbh but were more deteriorated than nearest available live trees. Thus, only a limited number of trees had all characteristics preferred by foraging woodpeckers, probably as a result of the ecology of its phloem-boring prey. Snags also were highly preferred over live trees as drumming substrates. Drumming snags differed from paired nearest available snags by having a broken top, less bark cover, and a lower deterioration class, which probably provided better acoustic towers for territorial birds. Given the extensive use of snags with different characteristics for foraging and drumming by three-toed woodpeckers, models estimating snag requirements for this species based only on nesting requirements are probably of limited use to maintain populations in managed areas. Wildlife habitat management objectives that specifically require the maintenance and renewal of snags in early decaying stages found in old-growth forests are essential to the conservation of this woodpecker species in managed forests. },
    KEYWORDS = { Black spruce Drumming Foraging behavior Picoides tridactylus Que?bec Snags Three-toed woodpecker boreal forest foraging behavior habitat management habitat use snag Canada Coleoptera Picea mariana Picoides tridactylus Scolytidae },
    OWNER = { racinep },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.09.07 },
}

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