BradleyFyles1996a

Référence

Bradley, R.L. and Fyles, J.W. (1996) Interactions between tree seedling roots and humus forms in the control of soil C and N cycling. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 23(1):70-79.

Résumé

The hypothesis that roots enhance soil-N turnover in humified soil organic matter (SOM) (mull) but not in lignified SOM (mor) was tested in a study involving the growth of eight species of tree seedlings on the two contrasting humus forms. After 12 and 22 weeks of seedling growth, soil-CO2 efflux was measured with (1) growing seedlings, and after 22 weeks, with (2) roots only, shoots excised, and (3) with roots removed and soils amended with different rates of glucose. Indices of C-flux and of soil available-C were derived and compared to plant-N uptake, extractable soil mineral-N, anaerobically mineralized soil-N. N bioavailability to Agrostis grass following harvest of seedlings, and to seedling fine root C-chemistry. Significant soil x species interactions were found for total soil-CO2 efflux, root-dependent CO2, soil available-C and microbial biomass. In all cases, roots were important contributors to C-cycling in the mull soil but not in the mor soil. C was more limiting in the mor than in the mull microbial community. Plant-N uptake and the mineral-N pool was greater in the mor soil, reflecting that soil's higher specific N-supplying capacity (N- mineralized:CO2). Seedlings decreased the mineral-N pool in both soils, but the presence of roots increased N-mineralization in the mull soil and decreased N-mineralization in the mor soil. Significant positive relationships were observed in the mull soil only between soil respiration and plant N uptake at mid-season, and between soil respiration and N- mineralization at late-season. Birch root activity in the mull soil was greater than that of all other seedlings and this observation is discussed with respect to the autecology of birch. Soil respiration correlated with the non-polar extract content but not the lignin:N ratio of fine roots. Results suggest that root-released C in mull SOM is sufficient to relieve energy limitation to soil microbes and allow them to access appreciable amounts of soil-N, whereas ligninolytic activity, which may ultimately control soil-N turnover in mor SOM, is not increased by rhizodeposition.

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@ARTICLE { BradleyFyles1996a,
    AUTHOR = { Bradley, R.L. and Fyles, J.W. },
    TITLE = { Interactions between tree seedling roots and humus forms in the control of soil C and N cycling },
    JOURNAL = { Biology and Fertility of Soils },
    YEAR = { 1996 },
    VOLUME = { 23 },
    PAGES = { 70-79 },
    NUMBER = { 1 },
    NOTE = { 01782762 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 13 Export Date: 26 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: BFSOE doi: 10.1007/s003740050140 Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Bradley, R.L.; Dept. of Natural Resource Sciences; Macdonald Campus; McGill University Ste-Anne de Bellevue, Que. H9X 3V3, Canada References: Aber, J.D., Melillo, J.M., McClaugherty, C.A., Predicting long-term patterns of mass loss, nitrogen dynamics, and soil organic matter formation from initial fine litter chemistry in temperate forest ecosystems (1990) Can J Bot, 68, pp. 2201-2208; Anderson, J.P.E., Soil respiration (1982) Methods of Soil Analysis. II. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd Edn., pp. 831-871. , Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Am Soc Agron. Madison. Wis; Anderson, T.H., Domsch, K.H., A physiological method for the quantitative measurement of microbial biomass in soil (1978) Soil Biol Biochem, 10, pp. 215-221; Anderson, T.H., Domsch, K.H., The metabolic quotient for CO2 (qCO2) as a specific activity parameter to assess the effects of environmental conditions, such as pH, on the microbial biomass of forest soils (1993) Soil Biol Biochem, 25, pp. 393-395; Bachmann, G., Kinzel, H., Physiological and ecological aspects of the interactions between plant roots and rhizosphere soil (1992) Soil Biol Biochem, 24, pp. 543-552; Bottner, P., Cortez, J., Sallih, Z., Effect of living roots on carbon and nitrogen of the soil microbial biomass (1991) Plant Root Growth, pp. 201-210. , Atkinson D (ed) Blackwell Scientific, London; Bradley, R.L., Fyles, J.W., A kinetic parameter describing soil available carbon and its relationship to rate increase in C mineralization (1995) Soil Biol Biochem, 27, pp. 167-172; Buwalda, J.G., Possen, M., Lenz, F., Carbon dioxide efflux from roots of calamodin and apple (1992) Tree Phys, 10, pp. 391-401; Carlyle, J.C., Nitrogen cycling in forested ecosystems (1986) For Abst, 47, pp. 307-336; Cheng, W., Coleman, D.C., Carroll, C.R., Houffman, C.A., In situ measurement or root respiration and soluble C concentrations in the rhizosphere (1993) Soil Biol Biochem, 25, pp. 1189-1196; Clarholm, M., Interactions of bacteria, protozoa and plants leading to mineralization of soil nitrogen (1985) Soil Biol Biochem, 17, pp. 181-187; Co?te?, B., Fyles, J.W., Nutrient concentration and acid-base status of leaf litter of tree species characteristic of the hardwood forest of southern Que?bec (1994) Can J for Res, 24, pp. 192-196; Coulson, C.B., Davies, R.I., Lewis, D.A., Polyphenols in plant, humus, and soil: I. 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II. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, 2nd Edn., pp. 539-579. , Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Am Soc Agron, Madison, Wis; Norton, J.M., Smith, J.L., Firestone, M.K., Carbon flow in the rhizosphere of ponderosa pine seedlings (1990) Soil Biol Biochem, 22, pp. 449-455; Parmelee, R.W., Ehrenfeld, J.G., Tate III, R.L., Effects of pine roots on microorganisms, fauna, and nitrogen availability in two soil horizons of a coniferous forest spodosol (1993) Biol Fertil Soils, 15, pp. 113-119; Powers, R.F., Mineralizable soil nitrogen as an index of nitrogen availability to forest trees (1980) Soil Sci Soc Am J, 44, pp. 1314-1320; Ryan, M.G., Melillo, J.M., Ricca, A., A comparison of methods for determining proximate carbon fractions of forest litter (1990) Can J For Res, 20, pp. 166-171; Rygiewicz, P.T., Andersen, C.P., Mycorrhizae alter quality and quantity of carbon allocated below ground (1994) Nature (London), 369, pp. 58-60; Sakamoto, K., Oba, Y., Effect of fungal to bacterial biomass ratio on the relationship between CO2 evolution and total soil microbial biomass (1994) Biol Fertil Soils, 17, pp. 39-44; Sallih, Z., Bottner, P., Effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots on mineralization rates of soil organic matter (1988) Biol Fertil Soils, 7, pp. 67-70; (1984) SAS/EST Users Guide. 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    ABSTRACT = { The hypothesis that roots enhance soil-N turnover in humified soil organic matter (SOM) (mull) but not in lignified SOM (mor) was tested in a study involving the growth of eight species of tree seedlings on the two contrasting humus forms. After 12 and 22 weeks of seedling growth, soil-CO2 efflux was measured with (1) growing seedlings, and after 22 weeks, with (2) roots only, shoots excised, and (3) with roots removed and soils amended with different rates of glucose. Indices of C-flux and of soil available-C were derived and compared to plant-N uptake, extractable soil mineral-N, anaerobically mineralized soil-N. N bioavailability to Agrostis grass following harvest of seedlings, and to seedling fine root C-chemistry. Significant soil x species interactions were found for total soil-CO2 efflux, root-dependent CO2, soil available-C and microbial biomass. In all cases, roots were important contributors to C-cycling in the mull soil but not in the mor soil. C was more limiting in the mor than in the mull microbial community. Plant-N uptake and the mineral-N pool was greater in the mor soil, reflecting that soil's higher specific N-supplying capacity (N- mineralized:CO2). Seedlings decreased the mineral-N pool in both soils, but the presence of roots increased N-mineralization in the mull soil and decreased N-mineralization in the mor soil. Significant positive relationships were observed in the mull soil only between soil respiration and plant N uptake at mid-season, and between soil respiration and N- mineralization at late-season. Birch root activity in the mull soil was greater than that of all other seedlings and this observation is discussed with respect to the autecology of birch. Soil respiration correlated with the non-polar extract content but not the lignin:N ratio of fine roots. Results suggest that root-released C in mull SOM is sufficient to relieve energy limitation to soil microbes and allow them to access appreciable amounts of soil-N, whereas ligninolytic activity, which may ultimately control soil-N turnover in mor SOM, is not increased by rhizodeposition. },
    KEYWORDS = { Birch autecology C and N cycling CO2 efflux Fine root chemistry Mull and mor humus N turnover Soil respiration carbon dioxide humus nitrogen turnover root activity soil respiration },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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