VilleneuveBrisson2003

Référence

Villeneuve, N., Brisson, J. (2003) Old-growth forests in the temperate deciduous zone of Quebec: Identification and evaluation for conservation and research purposes. Forestry Chronicle, 79(3):559-569.

Résumé

The Quebec Department of Natural Resources (Ministe?re des ressources naturelles du Que?bec) is working to identify and protect old-growth forests in the deciduous forest zone of the province. A total of 88 sites was visited and a multivariate analysis of the main attributes of old growth allowed the development of quantitative definitions and criteria for identifying old-growth sugar maple (Acer saccharum), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), eastern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis), and red spruce (Picea rubens) stands. Life expectancy of various species according to environment was determined through a statistical analysis of 21 500 study trees taken from the province's forest inventory. Four different identification criteria for old-growth forests were developed that include a number of indicators for old growth. Along with advanced age of forest cover, the criteria that best reflected the nature of old-growth forests were the presence of large dead trees, low cutting intensity, and the importance of shade-tolerant species. Old-growth forests identified during this validation work occupy roughly 60 km2 in Quebec's deciduous forest zone. Among other things, old-growth sugar maple stands of over 400 years old were discovered, containing stems with a diameter at breast height of 140 cm and a height of over 38 m. The very great potential of many of these exceptional forests for scientific research and biodiversity conservation is illustrated by the work carried out in the Boise? des Muir. Despite its small size, this sugar maple stand, which is over 300 years old, has advanced knowledge in fields as varied as forest dynamics, biodiversity, and climate studies, and has also served as a control site for various scientific studies.

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@ARTICLE { VilleneuveBrisson2003,
    AUTHOR = { Villeneuve, N. and Brisson, J. },
    TITLE = { Old-growth forests in the temperate deciduous zone of Quebec: Identification and evaluation for conservation and research purposes },
    JOURNAL = { Forestry Chronicle },
    YEAR = { 2003 },
    VOLUME = { 79 },
    PAGES = { 559-569 },
    NUMBER = { 3 },
    NOTE = { 00157546 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 3 Export Date: 27 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: FRCRA Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Villeneuve, N.; Min. Ressources Naturelles du Que.; Dir. de l'Environnement Forestier; 880 Chemin Sainte-Foy Quebec City, Que. G1S 4X4, Canada; email: normand.villeneuve@mrn.gouv.qc.ca References: Beaudet, M., Messier, C., Pare?, D., Brisson, J., Bergeron, Y., Possible mechanisms of sugar maple regeneration failure and replacement by beech in the Boise?-des-Muir old-growth forest, Quebec (1999) Ecoscience, 6, pp. 264-271; Bergeron, J.-F., Bouchard, A.R., Villeneuve, N., Les e?cosyste?mes forestiers exceptionnels du Que?bec, e?le?ments cle?s de la biodiversite? (1996) L'Aubelle, 117, pp. 8-11; Bigue?, B., (1997) Les fore?ts Anciennes du Sud-Ouest du Que?bec: Me?thode d' E?valuation des Peuplements a? Partir de Crite?res et d'Indicateurs, , Me?moire M.Sc., Universite? du Que?bec a? Montre?al. 85 p; Brisson, J., Bergeron, Y., Bouchard, A., Les successions secondaires sur sites me?siques dans le Haut-Saint-Laurent (1988) Canadian Journal of Botany, 66, pp. 1192-1203; Brisson, J., Bergeron, Y., Bouchard, A., The history and tree stratum of an old-growth forest of Haut-Saint-Laurent region, Quebec (1992) Natural Areas Journal, 12, pp. 3-9; Brisson, J., Bergeron, Y., Bouchard, A., Leduc, A., Beech-maple dynamics in an old-growth forest of Southern Quebec, Canada (1994) Ecoscience, 1, pp. 40-46; Brisson, J., Lareau, C., Millet, J., Bouchard, A., Re?tablissement des arbres ayant subi des dommages dus au verglas de janvier 1998, dans une fore?t ancienne de l'Est de i'Ame?rique du Nord (2001) L'arbre 2000; 2000 The Tree. 4ie?me Symposium International, , M. Labrecque (ed.). Inst. Rech. Biol. Ve?g. and Isabelle Quintin, Montre?al, Que?bec 375 p; Brown, J.-L., Les fore?ts du Te?miscamingue, Que?bec. 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Laval, Que?bec. 447 p; Chagnon, M., He?bert, C., Pare?, D., Community structure of Collembola in sugar maple forests: Relations to humus type and seasonal trends (2000) Pedobiologia, 44, pp. 148-174; Chagnon, M., Pare?, D., He?bert, C., Relationship between soil chemistry, microbial biomass and the collembolan fauna of southern Quebec sugar maple stands (2000) Ecoscience, 7, pp. 307-316; Cook, B.D., (1971) Tree-Age Distribution in a Northern Hardwood Forest, , M.Science Thesis, Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Davis, M.B., (1996) Eastern Old-Growth Forests: Prospects for Rediscovery and Recovery, , Island Press, Washington, D.C., USA; Desponts, M., (1994) Politiques, Strate?gies ou Mesures de Conservation Applique?es aux Fore?ts Anciennes dans les Provinces Canadiennes, , Direction de l'Environnement forestier, ministe?re des Ressources naturelles, Quebec. 67 p; Doyon, F., Bouchard, A., Gagnon, D., Tree productivity and successional status in Que?bec northern hardwoods (1998) Ecoscience, 5, pp. 222-231; Duchesne, L.C., Defining Canada's old-growth forests - Problems and solutions (1994) The Forestry Chronicle, 70, pp. 739-744; Franklin, J.F., Cromack K., Jr., Denison, W., Mckee, A., Maser, C., Sedell, J., Swanson, F., Juday, G., Ecological characteristics of old-growth Douglas-fir forests (1981) USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW-118, , 49 p; Greenberg, C.H., Mcleod, D.E., Loftis, D.L., An old-growth definition for western and mixed mesophytic forests (1997) General Technical Report SRS-16, , USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC, USA.14 p; Grondin, P., E?cologie forestie?re (1996) Manuel de Foresterie, , Ordre des Inge?nieurs forestiers du Que?bec, Sainte-Foy 1428 p; Hunter M.L., Jr., What constitutes an old-growth stand? (1989) Journal of Forestry, 87, pp. 33-35; Hunter M.L., Jr., White, A.S., Ecological thresholds and the definition of old-growth forest stands (1997) Natural Areas Journal, 17, pp. 292-296; Leduc, A., Bergeron, Y., (1998) Traits Distinctifs des Fore?ts Anciennes se De?veloppant sur Sites Me?siques dans le sud du Que?bec, , Groupe de recherche en e?cologie forestie?re, Universite? du Que?bec a? Montre?al. 139 p; Leverett, R., Definitions and history (1996) Eastern Old-Growth Forests: Prospects for Rediscovery and Recovery, , M.B. Davis (ed.). Island Press, Washington, D.C; Majcen, Z., Richard, Y., (1992) Composition et Structure des Prucheraies dans cinq Secteurs Forestiers du Sud-Ouest Que?be?cois, , Me?m. n 107, Direction de la recherche, ministe?re des Fore?ts, Que?bec. 68 p; (1994) Le Point d'Observation E?cologique, , Gouvernement du Que?bec, Que?bec. 116 p; (1996) Biodiversite? du Milieu Forestier, , Bilan et engagements du ministe?re des Ressources naturelles. Gouvernement du Que?bec, Que?bec. 152 p; (2000) Norme de Cartographie E?coforestie?re, , Gouvernement du Que?bec, Que?bec. 84 p; (2001) Les E?cosyste?mes Forestiers Exceptionnels du Que?bec: E?le?ments Cle?s de la Diversite? Biologique, , Gouvernement du Que?bec, Que?bec. 14 p; Nowacki, G.J., Trianoski, P.A., Literature on old-growth forests of eastern North America (1993) Natural Areas Journal, 13, pp. 87-107; Oliver, C.D., Forest development in North America following major disturbances (1981) Forest Ecology and Management, 3, pp. 153-168; Payette, S., Filion, L., Delwaide, A., Disturbance regime of a cold temperate forest as deduced from tree-ring pattems: The Tantare ecological reserve (Que?bec) (1990) Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 20, pp. 1228-1241; Rowe, J.S., (1972) Les Re?gions Forestie?res du Canada, , Service canadien des fore?ts, Ministe?re de l'environnement, Canada, Publication n 1300F. 172 p; Runkle, J.R., Central mesophytic forests (1996) Eastern Old-Growth Forests: Prospects for Rediscovery and Recovery, , M.B. Davis (ed.). Island Press, Washington, D.C; (1996) The SAS System for Windows, Release 6.12, , SAS Campus Drive, Cary, N.C; Saucier, J.-P., Bergeron, J.-F., Grondin, P., Robitaille, A., (1998) Les Re?gions E?cologiques du Que?bec Me?ridional (3e Version): Un des E?le?ments du Syste?me Hie?rarchique de Classification E?cologique du Territoire mis au Point par le Ministe?re des Ressources Naturelles du Que?bec, , L'Aubelle, supple?ment fe?vrier-mars. 12 p; Simon, J.-P., Payette, Y., Longpre?, M.-H., Comparative analysis of the genetic composition of canopy and juvenile sugar maple individuals (Acer saccharum) in an old-growth forest in southern Quebec as related to anthropogenic disturbance (1995) Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 25, pp. 743-752; Spies, T.A., Franklin, J.F., Old growth and forest dynamics in the Douglas-fir region of western Oregon and Washington (1988) Natural Areas Journal, 8, pp. 190-201; Tardif, J., Brisson, J., Bergeron, Y., Dendrochronological analysis of Acer saccharum Marsh., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh, and Tsuga canadensis (L) Carr., from an old-growth forest, southwestern Que?bec (2001) Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 31, pp. 1491-1501; Therrien, F., Chagnon, M., Hubert, C., Biodiversity of collembola in sugar maple (Aceracaea) forests (1999) The Canadian Entomologist, 131, pp. 613-628; Tyrrell, L.E., Nowacki, G.J., Crow, T.R., Buckley, D.S., Nauertz, E.A., Niese, J.N., Rollinger, J.L., Zasada, J.C., Information about old-growth for selected forest type groups in the Eastern United States (1998) General Technical Report NC-197, , USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, St-Paul, Minnesota. 507 p; Villeneuve, N., (1994) Les E?osyste?mes Forestiers Exceptionnels au Que?bec, , Direction de l'environnement forestier, Ministe?re des Ressources naturelles, Que?bec. 31 p; Villeneuve, N., (1995) Les E?cosyste?mes rares et les Fore?ts Anciennes: De?finition des Concepts et Application au Contexte Forestier Que?be?cois, , Direction de l'environnement forestier, Ministe?re des Ressources Naturelles, Que?bec. 87 p; Vujanovic, V., Brisson, J., Biodiversite? microfongique de Fagus grandifolia dans une fore?t ancienne: Bioindicateurs et structure mycosociologique (2001) Canadian Field-Naturalist, 115, pp. 34-42; Vujanovic, V., St-Arnaud, M., Neumann, P., Fortin, J.A., Diarimella laurentidea anam. - Sp. nov. from Que?bec (1998) Canadian Journal of Botany, 76, pp. 2037-2041; Vujanovic, V., St-Arnaud, M., Neumann, P., Fortin, J.A., Brisson, J., A new species Polynema muirii on Fagus grandifolia (1999) Mycologia, 91, pp. 136-140; Whitney, G.G., Some reflections on the value of old-growth forests, scientific and otherwise (1987) Natural Areas Journal, 7, pp. 92-99. },
    ABSTRACT = { The Quebec Department of Natural Resources (Ministe?re des ressources naturelles du Que?bec) is working to identify and protect old-growth forests in the deciduous forest zone of the province. A total of 88 sites was visited and a multivariate analysis of the main attributes of old growth allowed the development of quantitative definitions and criteria for identifying old-growth sugar maple (Acer saccharum), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), eastern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis), and red spruce (Picea rubens) stands. Life expectancy of various species according to environment was determined through a statistical analysis of 21 500 study trees taken from the province's forest inventory. Four different identification criteria for old-growth forests were developed that include a number of indicators for old growth. Along with advanced age of forest cover, the criteria that best reflected the nature of old-growth forests were the presence of large dead trees, low cutting intensity, and the importance of shade-tolerant species. Old-growth forests identified during this validation work occupy roughly 60 km2 in Quebec's deciduous forest zone. Among other things, old-growth sugar maple stands of over 400 years old were discovered, containing stems with a diameter at breast height of 140 cm and a height of over 38 m. The very great potential of many of these exceptional forests for scientific research and biodiversity conservation is illustrated by the work carried out in the Boise? des Muir. Despite its small size, this sugar maple stand, which is over 300 years old, has advanced knowledge in fields as varied as forest dynamics, biodiversity, and climate studies, and has also served as a control site for various scientific studies. },
    KEYWORDS = { Conservation Criteria Definitions Indicators Inventory Old-growth forests Quebec Scientific value Biodiversity Climatology Environmental engineering Forest dynamics Forestry conservation management forest inventory old-growth forest temperate forest Canada Acer saccharum Picea rubens Pinus strobus Thuja occidentalis Tsuga canadensis },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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