TremblayBergeronLalondeEtAl2002

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Tremblay, M.F., Bergeron, Y., Lalonde, D. and Mauffette, Y. (2002) The potential effects of sexual reproduction and seedling recruitment on the maintenance of red maple (Acer rubrurn L.) populations at the northern limit of the species range. Journal of Biogeography, 29(3):365-373.

Résumé

Aim: For this study, we wanted to evaluate the reproductive potential of northern red maple (Acer rubrum L.) populations to identify the possible factors responsible for the scattered distribution pattern of these northern populations. Location: Samara production and long-term establishment of seedlings were observed along a north-south transect crossing the transition zone between continuous and discontinuous stands of red maple (47°80?-49°27? N) in western Quebec. Methods: Eleven populations of red maple were selected along a latitudinal gradient extending to the northern limit of the species. Seed traps were placed in each stand and distributed under the canopy of mature red maple trees. Seed abundance was tracked for 6 years from 1988 to 1993. Phenological observations were made in 1992 and 1993 at Roquemaure (Roq), a site located at the centre of the latitudinal gradient. Red maple trees were randomly selected within the population; counts of flower buds, pollinated buds and samaras produced were made in 1992-93. Samaras were collected from each branch immediately before dispersal and counted. During the summer of 1987, seedlings (< 1 cm d.b.h.) were collected and aged at each site in twenty 1 m2 quadrants and age of the seedlings (< 1 cm d.b.h.) was determined by counting the annual scars left by terminal buds. Results: Samaras were produced even at the northern limit but large yearly variations were observed. Over the 6-year period we counted 3 years (1989, 1990, 1993) when samara production was high, and 3 years (1988, 1991, 1992) when production was low. Phenological observations indicate that the occurrence of spring frosts at the time of flower bud flushing could contribute to decreasing the abundance of seeds. The age structure of southern localities had a relatively constant production of seedlings, as indicated by an inverse J-shaped distribution. However, the five northernmost localities show sporadic recruitment. Main conclusions: Populations at the northern limit are maintained essentially through vegetative reproduction and infrequent sexual recruitment. Our results indicate that regeneration within established stands through sexual recruitment is possible in all of the populations we studied. This potential becomes very low at more northerly sites and sexual reproduction alone would be unlikely to ensure successful stand regeneration. Without major disturbances in those stands, shade tolerant conifer species such as balsam fir (Abies balsamea) or black spruce (Picea mariana) would readily dominate the canopy. The discontinuous distribution of red maple stands at the northern limit is the consequence of either a random colonization of few sites during a better climatic period or remnants of a much larger distribution that has been constrained because of climatic deterioration.

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@ARTICLE { TremblayBergeronLalondeEtAl2002,
    AUTHOR = { Tremblay, M.F. and Bergeron, Y. and Lalonde, D. and Mauffette, Y. },
    TITLE = { The potential effects of sexual reproduction and seedling recruitment on the maintenance of red maple (Acer rubrurn L.) populations at the northern limit of the species range },
    JOURNAL = { Journal of Biogeography },
    YEAR = { 2002 },
    VOLUME = { 29 },
    PAGES = { 365-373 },
    NUMBER = { 3 },
    NOTE = { 03050270 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 6 Export Date: 25 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: JBIOD doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2699.2002.00665.x Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Tremblay, M.F.; Chaire en amenage. forestier durable; Univ. Quebec Abitibi-Temiscamingue; 445 boul. de I'Universite? Rouyn-Noranda, Que. J9X 5E4, Canada; email: francine.tremblay@uqat.uquebec.ca References: Agren, J., Isaksson, L., Zackrisson, O., Natural age and size of Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies on a mire in the inland part of Northern Sweden (1983) Holartic Ecology, 5, pp. 228-237; Babeux, P., Mauffette, Y., The effects of early and late spring cuts on the sprouting success of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) in north-western Quebec (1994) Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24, pp. 785-791; Bergeron, Y., Bouchard, A., Gangloff, P., Camire?, C., (1983) La classificaiton e?cologique des milieux forestiers d'une partie des cantons d'He?be?court et de Roquemaure, , E?tudes E?cologiques, No. 9, Universite? Laval St-Foy, 169 pp; Burns, R.N., Honkala, B.H., (1990) Silvics of North America, 1-2. , USDA Forest Service Agricultural Handbook, 654 pp; Carcaillet, C., Bergeron, Y., Richard, P.J.H., Fre?chette, B., Gauthier, S., Prairie, Y.T., Change of fire frequency in the eastern Canadian boreal forests during the Holocene: Does vegetation or climate trigger the fire regime (2001) Journal of Ecology, 89, pp. 930-947. , in press; Desponts, M., Payette, S., Recent dynamics of jack pine at its northern distribution limit in northern Quebec (1992) Canadian Journal of Botany, 70, pp. 1157-1167; Flannigan, M., Bergeron, Y., Possible role of perturbations in shaping the northern distribution of Pinus resinosa (1998) Journal of Vegetation Science, 9, pp. 477-482; Gauthier, S., De Grandpre?, L., Bergeron, Y., Differences in forest composition in two ecoregions of the boreal forest of Que?bec (2000) Journal of Vegetation Science, 11, pp. 781-790; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., Long-distance wind dispersal of tree seeds (1995) Canadian Journal of Botany, 73, pp. 1036-1045; Heinselman, M.L., Fire and succession in the conifer forests of the northern north America (1981) Forest succession, concepts and application, 1, pp. 374-406. , eds D.C. West, H.H. Shugart and D.B. Botkin. Springer, New York, NY; Jacobson, J., Dieffenbacher-Krall, A., White pine and climate change, insights from the past (1995) Journal of Foestry, 93, pp. 39-42; James, G.I., Courtin, G.M., Stand structure and growth form on the birch transition community in an industrially damaged ecosystem Sudbury, Ontario (1985) Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 15, pp. 809-817; Kullman, L., Change and stability in the altitude of the birch tree line in the southern Swedis Scandes 1915-1975 (1979) Acta Phytogeographica Suecica, 65, p. 121; Kullman, L., Past and present tree lines of different species in the Handolan Valley Central Sweden (1983) Tree line Ecology Proceedings of the Northern Quebec Tree-Line Conference, pp. 25-42. , eds P. Morissette and S. Payette). Centre d'e?tudes nordiques de l'Universite? Laval, Quebec Canada; Lalonde, D., (1991) Distribution et dynamique des communaute?s d'E?rable rouge a? la limite nord de leur re?partition en Abitibi, Que?bec, , MSc Thesis, Universite? du Que?bec a? Montre?al, Montre?al, Canada; Meilleur, A., Brisson, J., Bouchard, A., Ecological analysis of the northernmost population of pitch pine (Pinus rigida) (1997) Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, pp. 1342-1350; (1998) Rapport de classification e?cologique: sapinie?re a? bouleau jaune de l'ouest, , Programme de connaissance des e?cosyste?mes forestiers du Que?bec me?ridional. Gouvernement du Que?bec, Que?bec, Canada; (1999) Rapport de classification e?cologique: sapinie?re a? bouleau blanc de l'ouest, , Programme de connaissance des e?cosyste?mes forestiers du Que?bec me?ridional. Gouvernement du Que?bec, Que?bec, Canada; (1999) Rapport de classification e?cologique: Pessie?re a? mousses de l'ouest, , Programme de connaissance des e?cosyste?mes forestiers du Que?bec me?ridional. Gouvernement du Que?bec, Que?bec, Canada; Mueller-Dombois, D., Ellenberg, H., (1974) Aims and method of vegetation ecology, , Wiley, New York; Oohata, S., Sakai, A., Freezing resistance and thermal indices with references to distribution of the genus Pinus (1983) Plant cold hardiness and freezing stress, pp. 347-371. , eds P.H. Li and A. Sakai. Academic Press, New York; Payette, S., Lajeunesse, R., Les combes a? neige de la rivie?re aux feuilles (Nouveau-Que?bec): Indicateurs pale?oclimatiques holoce?nes (1980) Ge?ographie Physique et Quaternaire, 34, pp. 209-220; Pigott, C.D., Huntley, J.P., Factors controlling the distribution of Tillia cordata the northern limits of its geographical range. I. Distribution in north-west England (1978) New Phytologist, 81, pp. 429-441; Pigott, C.D., Huntley, J.P., Factors controlling the distribution of Tilia cordata the northern limits of its geographical range. II. History in north-west England (1980) New Phyologist, 84, pp. 145-164; Pigott, C.D., Huntley, J.P., Factors controlling the distribution of Tilia cordata the northern limits of its geographical range. III. Nature and cause of seed sterility (1981) New Phytologist, 87, pp. 817-839; Sakai, A., Weiser, C.J., Freezing resistance of trees in North America in references to tree regions (1973) Ecology, 54, pp. 118-126; Terasmae, J., Anderson, T.W., Hypsithermal range extension of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) in Que?bec, Canada (1970) Canadian Journal of Earth Science, 7, pp. 406-413; Thibault, M., Hotte, D., (1985) Les re?gions e?cologiques du Que?bec me?ridional (deuxie?me approximaiton), , Service de la cartographie, Ministe?re de l'E?nergie et des ressources du Que?bec, Quebec. Carte Au 1:1250000; Veillette, J.J., Evolution and paleohydrology of glacial lakes Barlow and Ojibway (1994) Quaternary Science Reviews, 13, pp. 945-971; Woodward, F.I., (1987) Climate and plant distribution, , Cambridge Studies in Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. },
    ABSTRACT = { Aim: For this study, we wanted to evaluate the reproductive potential of northern red maple (Acer rubrum L.) populations to identify the possible factors responsible for the scattered distribution pattern of these northern populations. Location: Samara production and long-term establishment of seedlings were observed along a north-south transect crossing the transition zone between continuous and discontinuous stands of red maple (47°80?-49°27? N) in western Quebec. Methods: Eleven populations of red maple were selected along a latitudinal gradient extending to the northern limit of the species. Seed traps were placed in each stand and distributed under the canopy of mature red maple trees. Seed abundance was tracked for 6 years from 1988 to 1993. Phenological observations were made in 1992 and 1993 at Roquemaure (Roq), a site located at the centre of the latitudinal gradient. Red maple trees were randomly selected within the population; counts of flower buds, pollinated buds and samaras produced were made in 1992-93. Samaras were collected from each branch immediately before dispersal and counted. During the summer of 1987, seedlings (< 1 cm d.b.h.) were collected and aged at each site in twenty 1 m2 quadrants and age of the seedlings (< 1 cm d.b.h.) was determined by counting the annual scars left by terminal buds. Results: Samaras were produced even at the northern limit but large yearly variations were observed. Over the 6-year period we counted 3 years (1989, 1990, 1993) when samara production was high, and 3 years (1988, 1991, 1992) when production was low. Phenological observations indicate that the occurrence of spring frosts at the time of flower bud flushing could contribute to decreasing the abundance of seeds. The age structure of southern localities had a relatively constant production of seedlings, as indicated by an inverse J-shaped distribution. However, the five northernmost localities show sporadic recruitment. Main conclusions: Populations at the northern limit are maintained essentially through vegetative reproduction and infrequent sexual recruitment. Our results indicate that regeneration within established stands through sexual recruitment is possible in all of the populations we studied. This potential becomes very low at more northerly sites and sexual reproduction alone would be unlikely to ensure successful stand regeneration. Without major disturbances in those stands, shade tolerant conifer species such as balsam fir (Abies balsamea) or black spruce (Picea mariana) would readily dominate the canopy. The discontinuous distribution of red maple stands at the northern limit is the consequence of either a random colonization of few sites during a better climatic period or remnants of a much larger distribution that has been constrained because of climatic deterioration. },
    KEYWORDS = { Age structure Canada Northern limit Phenology Quebec Red maple Sexual reproduction biogeography recruitment seed production seedling establishment sexual reproduction Canada Abies Abies balsamea Acer Acer rubrum Coniferophyta Picea Picea mariana },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

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