ArseneaultPayette1997

Référence

Arseneault, D. and Payette, S. (1997) Landscape change following deforestation at the arctic tree line in Quebec, Canada. Ecology, 78(3):693-706. (Scopus )

Résumé

This study examines the influence of fire-induced deforestation in well-drained conifer sites on the development of adjacent, surviving spruce stands in peatlands at the arctic tree line (northern Quebec). Tree-ring and growth-form patterns of cross-dated black spruce (Picea mariana) remains in peat were used to analyze stand responses in two contrasting topographical settings: a moderately protected valley-bottom peatland, and an exposed hilltop peatland. Dense, old-growth spruce populations occupied the studied peatlands between the 11th and 16th centuries, with stunted and erect spruce dominating the hilltop and the valley sites, respectively. Spruce continued to colonize the peatlands as long as the adjacent well-drained sites were occupied by forest trees able to attenuate the damaging effect of winter snow-drifting conditions. The surviving conifer stands exhibited similar growth responses following deforestation of the well-drained sites by wildfire in AD 1567-1568. These responses included dieback of supranival (above snow) stems and death of trees due to drowning in permafrost-induced ponds. The postfire degradation and disappearance of the conifer stands from the peatlands were the ultimate stage of a positive feedback process triggered by a modification of the snow regime at the landscape scale. Deforestation of the well-drained sites led to reduced snow accumulation and enhanced snow-drift exposure, thus inducing permafrost aggradation and drainage impediment in the nearby peatland sites. While the hilltop conifer stand responded immediately to forest exclusion in the nearby sites, ecosystem changes in the valley peatland were delayed until AD 1580-1590, at the beginning of the Little Ice Age. Our results emphasize the sensitivity and connectedness of adjoining ecosystems to fire and frost disturbances in a changing subarctic landscape mosaic.

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@ARTICLE { ArseneaultPayette1997,
    AUTHOR = { Arseneault, D. and Payette, S. },
    TITLE = { Landscape change following deforestation at the arctic tree line in Quebec, Canada },
    JOURNAL = { Ecology },
    YEAR = { 1997 },
    VOLUME = { 78 },
    PAGES = { 693-706 },
    NUMBER = { 3 },
    NOTE = { cited By 34 },
    ABSTRACT = { This study examines the influence of fire-induced deforestation in well-drained conifer sites on the development of adjacent, surviving spruce stands in peatlands at the arctic tree line (northern Quebec). Tree-ring and growth-form patterns of cross-dated black spruce (Picea mariana) remains in peat were used to analyze stand responses in two contrasting topographical settings: a moderately protected valley-bottom peatland, and an exposed hilltop peatland. Dense, old-growth spruce populations occupied the studied peatlands between the 11th and 16th centuries, with stunted and erect spruce dominating the hilltop and the valley sites, respectively. Spruce continued to colonize the peatlands as long as the adjacent well-drained sites were occupied by forest trees able to attenuate the damaging effect of winter snow-drifting conditions. The surviving conifer stands exhibited similar growth responses following deforestation of the well-drained sites by wildfire in AD 1567-1568. These responses included dieback of supranival (above snow) stems and death of trees due to drowning in permafrost-induced ponds. The postfire degradation and disappearance of the conifer stands from the peatlands were the ultimate stage of a positive feedback process triggered by a modification of the snow regime at the landscape scale. Deforestation of the well-drained sites led to reduced snow accumulation and enhanced snow-drift exposure, thus inducing permafrost aggradation and drainage impediment in the nearby peatland sites. While the hilltop conifer stand responded immediately to forest exclusion in the nearby sites, ecosystem changes in the valley peatland were delayed until AD 1580-1590, at the beginning of the Little Ice Age. Our results emphasize the sensitivity and connectedness of adjoining ecosystems to fire and frost disturbances in a changing subarctic landscape mosaic. },
    AUTHOR_KEYWORDS = { Black spruce; Deforestation; Dendro-ecology; Environmental conditions; Forest-tundra; Landscape ecology; Northern Quebec; Peatland; Permafrost; Snow cover },
    DOCUMENT_TYPE = { Article },
    KEYWORDS = { Arctic environment; black spruce; deforestation; landscape change; peatland; peatlands; permafrost; tree line; treeline, Canada, Quebec, Picea mariana; Pinaceae },
    SOURCE = { Scopus },
    URL = { http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-0030616831&partnerID=40&md5=f9b205e2d21cca2fedc8ea1e4bbf244e },
}

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