TimermanGreeneUrzayEtAl2014

Référence

Timerman, D., Greene, D.F., Urzay, J., Ackerman, J.D. (2014) Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae). Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 11(101). (Scopus )

Résumé

In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind-stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibrations that release episodic bursts of pollen grains. In laboratory experiments, we showthat stamens have mechanical properties corresponding to theoretically predicted ranges for turbulence-driven resonant vibrations. The mechanical excitation of stamens at their characteristic resonance frequency caused them to resonate, shedding pollen vigorously. The characteristic natural frequency of the stamens increased over time with each shedding episode due to the reduction in anther mass, which increased the mechanical energy required to trigger subsequent episodes. Field observations of a natural population under turbulent wind conditions were consistent with these laboratory results and demonstrated that pollen is released from resonating stamens excited by small eddies whose turnover periods are similar to the characteristic resonance frequency measured in the laboratory. Turbulence-driven vibration of stamens at resonance may be a primary mechanism for pollen shedding in wind-pollinated angiosperms. The capacity to release pollen in wind can be viewed as a primary factor distinguishing animal- from wind-pollinated plants, and selection on traits such as the damping ratio and flexural rigidity may be of consequence in evolutionary transitions between pollination systems. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

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@ARTICLE { TimermanGreeneUrzayEtAl2014,
    AUTHOR = { Timerman, D. and Greene, D.F. and Urzay, J. and Ackerman, J.D. },
    TITLE = { Turbulence-induced resonance vibrations cause pollen release in wind-pollinated Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae) },
    JOURNAL = { Journal of the Royal Society Interface },
    YEAR = { 2014 },
    VOLUME = { 11 },
    NUMBER = { 101 },
    NOTE = { cited By 1 },
    ABSTRACT = { In wind pollination, the release of pollen from anthers into airflows determines the quantity and timing of pollen available for pollination. Despite the ecological and evolutionary importance of pollen release, wind-stamen interactions are poorly understood, as are the specific forces that deliver pollen grains into airflows. We present empirical evidence that atmospheric turbulence acts directly on stamens in the cosmopolitan, wind-pollinated weed, Plantago lanceolata, causing resonant vibrations that release episodic bursts of pollen grains. In laboratory experiments, we showthat stamens have mechanical properties corresponding to theoretically predicted ranges for turbulence-driven resonant vibrations. The mechanical excitation of stamens at their characteristic resonance frequency caused them to resonate, shedding pollen vigorously. The characteristic natural frequency of the stamens increased over time with each shedding episode due to the reduction in anther mass, which increased the mechanical energy required to trigger subsequent episodes. Field observations of a natural population under turbulent wind conditions were consistent with these laboratory results and demonstrated that pollen is released from resonating stamens excited by small eddies whose turnover periods are similar to the characteristic resonance frequency measured in the laboratory. Turbulence-driven vibration of stamens at resonance may be a primary mechanism for pollen shedding in wind-pollinated angiosperms. The capacity to release pollen in wind can be viewed as a primary factor distinguishing animal- from wind-pollinated plants, and selection on traits such as the damping ratio and flexural rigidity may be of consequence in evolutionary transitions between pollination systems. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. },
    ART_NUMBER = { 20140866 },
    AUTHOR_KEYWORDS = { Aeroelasticity; Pollination syndromes; Stamens; Wind pollination },
    DOCUMENT_TYPE = { Article },
    DOI = { 10.1098/rsif.2014.0866 },
    KEYWORDS = { Aeroelasticity; Atmospheric turbulence; Forestry; Mechanical properties; Natural frequencies; Resonance; Vibrations (mechanical), Evolutionary transitions; In-laboratory experiments; Mechanical excitations; Pollination syndromes; Resonance frequencies; Resonance vibrations; Stamens; Wind pollination, Plants (botany), Animalia; Magnoliophyta; Plantaginaceae; Plantago lanceolata },
    SOURCE = { Scopus },
    URL = { http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-84920965851&partnerID=40&md5=dd536e96f8f001dd2a2936d72508718b },
}

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