GreeneJohnson1997

Référence

Greene, D.F. and Johnson, E.A. (1997) Secondary dispersal of tree seeds on snow. Journal of Ecology, 85(3):329-340.

Résumé

1. We studied secondary seed dispersal on snow using a wind tunnel, experimental releases in clearings, and observations of the dispersal curve of an isolated Betula alleghaniensis in a large clearing. We derived a model for wind dispersal which couples the primary and secondary movement for a point source, and then used this to modify an area source model dispersal curve. 2. The wind tunnel results showed that the probability of entrainment of the seed was directly proportional to wind speed and inversely proportional to the square root of wing loading. Field releases showed that secondary distance traveled was, in turn, proportional to the probability of entrainment and to travel time. 3. The point source model overestimated seed density in the distance interval of rising entrainment probability and underestimated seed density at subsequent distances. The area source model adequately predicted dispersal for autumn vs. winter fractions of a B. alleghaniensis stand dispersing seeds into a clearing. The isolated B. alleghaniensis indicated that travel time was ? 10 h. 4. According to the model, secondary dispersal for trees on snow is inconsequential when the fraction of seeds that abscise in winter is <0.15 (conifers and most angiosperms). However, it will have an important role for genera such as Betula which have large winter-abscising crop fractions. 5. Further, we note that the relative importance of secondary dispersal is almost solely an inverse function of release height, and therefore for very small statured plants (e.g. herbs), secondary dispersal should display a dramatic effect even if only a small portion of the crop is involved. Finally, we argue that wind speeds near the surface within a forest are so low that the effect of secondary dispersal within forests will be minor.

Format EndNote

Vous pouvez importer cette référence dans EndNote.

Format BibTeX-CSV

Vous pouvez importer cette référence en format BibTeX-CSV.

Format BibTeX

Vous pouvez copier l'entrée BibTeX de cette référence ci-bas, ou l'importer directement dans un logiciel tel que JabRef .

@ARTICLE { GreeneJohnson1997,
    AUTHOR = { Greene, D.F. and Johnson, E.A. },
    TITLE = { Secondary dispersal of tree seeds on snow },
    JOURNAL = { Journal of Ecology },
    YEAR = { 1997 },
    VOLUME = { 85 },
    PAGES = { 329-340 },
    NUMBER = { 3 },
    NOTE = { 00220477 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 21 Export Date: 27 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: JECOA Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Greene, D.F.; Departments of Geography and Biology; Concordia University; 1455 de Maisonnueve Blvd. Montreal, Que. H3G 1M8, Canada References: Augspurger, C.K., Morphology and dispersal potential of wind-dispersed diaspores of neotropical trees (1986) American Journal of Botany, 73, pp. 353-363; Augspurger, C.K., Hogan, K.P., Wind dispersal of fruits with variable seed number in a tropical tree (Lonchocarpus pentophyllus) (1983) American Journal of Botany, 70, pp. 1031-1037; Benzie, J.W., (1959) Sugar Maple and Yellow Birch Seed Dispersal from a Fully Stocked Stand of Mature Northern Hardwoods in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, , USDA Forest Service, Lake States Experiment Station, Technical Note 561, St. Paul, Minnesota; Bormann, F.H., Likens, G.E., (1981) Pattern and Process in a Forested Ecosystem, , Springer-Verlag, New York; Ford, R.H., Sharik, T.L., Feret, P.P., Seed dispersal of the endangered Virginia round-leaf birch (Betula uber) (1983) Forest Ecology and Management, 6, pp. 115-128; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., A model of wind dispersal of winged or plumed seeds (1989) Ecology, 70, pp. 339-347; Greene, D.F., Johnson, E.A., A model for the dispersal of seeds by wind from a forest to a clearing (1996) Ecology, 77, pp. 595-609; Houle, G., Payette, S., Seed dynamics of Betula alleghaniensis in a deciduous forest of northeastern North America (1990) Journal of Ecology, 78, pp. 677-690; Hughes, J.W., Fahey, T.J., Seed dispersal and colonization in a disturbed northern hardwood forest (1988) Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 115, pp. 89-99; Johnson, E.A., Fryer, G.I., Physical characterization of seed microsites - Movement on the ground (1992) Journal of Ecology, 80, pp. 823-836; Luna, R.E., Church, H.W., Estimation of long-term concentrations using a 'universal' wind speed distribution (1974) Journal of Applied Meteorology, 13, pp. 910-916; Matlack, G.R., Secondary dispersal of seed across snow in Betula lenta, a gap-colonizing tree species (1989) Journal of Ecology, 77, pp. 858-869; McCaughey, W.W., Schmidt, W.C., Shearer, R.C., Seed dispersal characteristics of conifers in the inland mountain West (1985) Conifer Tree Seed in the Inland Mountain West, pp. 50-62. , ed. R.C. Shearer, USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, General Technical Report INT-203, Ogden, Utah; Nageli, W., Die Windbremsung durch einen grosseren Waldcomplex: Ein Beitrag zum Problem der Schutz-streifenbreite bei Windschutzan lagen (1953) Compt Rend II, pp. 240-246. , International Union of Forest Research, Firenze; Pasquill, F., Smith, F.B., (1983) Atmospheric Diffusion, , John Wiley and Sons, New York; Ridley, H.N., (1930) The Dispersal of Plants Throughout the World, , L. Reeve, Ashford, United Kingdom; Roe, E.I., (1946) Extended Periods of Seedfall of White Spruce and Balsam Fir, , USDA Forest Service, Lake States Forest Experiment Station, Technical Note 261, St. Paul, Minnesota; Smith, R., On the seed dispersal of Pinus sylvestris and Betula alba (1900) Annals of Scottish Natural History, 9, pp. 43-46; Van Der Pijl, L., (1982) Principles of Dispersal in Higher Plants, , Springer-Verlag, Berlin; Watkinson, A.R., The demography of a sand dune annual: Vulpia fasciculata. III. The dispersal of seeds (1978) Journal of Ecology, 66, pp. 483-497. },
    ABSTRACT = { 1. We studied secondary seed dispersal on snow using a wind tunnel, experimental releases in clearings, and observations of the dispersal curve of an isolated Betula alleghaniensis in a large clearing. We derived a model for wind dispersal which couples the primary and secondary movement for a point source, and then used this to modify an area source model dispersal curve. 2. The wind tunnel results showed that the probability of entrainment of the seed was directly proportional to wind speed and inversely proportional to the square root of wing loading. Field releases showed that secondary distance traveled was, in turn, proportional to the probability of entrainment and to travel time. 3. The point source model overestimated seed density in the distance interval of rising entrainment probability and underestimated seed density at subsequent distances. The area source model adequately predicted dispersal for autumn vs. winter fractions of a B. alleghaniensis stand dispersing seeds into a clearing. The isolated B. alleghaniensis indicated that travel time was ? 10 h. 4. According to the model, secondary dispersal for trees on snow is inconsequential when the fraction of seeds that abscise in winter is <0.15 (conifers and most angiosperms). However, it will have an important role for genera such as Betula which have large winter-abscising crop fractions. 5. Further, we note that the relative importance of secondary dispersal is almost solely an inverse function of release height, and therefore for very small statured plants (e.g. herbs), secondary dispersal should display a dramatic effect even if only a small portion of the crop is involved. Finally, we argue that wind speeds near the surface within a forest are so low that the effect of secondary dispersal within forests will be minor. },
    KEYWORDS = { Wind dispersal Wing loading seed dispersal snow tree wind dispersal Betula alleghaniensis Betulaceae },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

********************************************************** ***************** Facebook Twitter *********************** **********************************************************

Abonnez-vous à
l'Infolettre du CEF!

********************************************************** ***************** Pub - Mycorhizes_2019 ****************** **********************************************************

********************************************************** ***************** Pub - Symphonies_Boreales ****************** **********************************************************

********************************************************** ***************** Boîte à trucs *************** **********************************************************

CEF-Référence
La référence vedette !

Jérémie Alluard (2016) Les statistiques au moments de la rédaction 

  • Ce document a pour but de guider les étudiants à intégrer de manière appropriée une analyse statistique dans leur rapport de recherche.

Voir les autres...