ChapmanKaufmanChapman1998

Référence

Chapman, C.A., Kaufman, L., Chapman, L.J. (1998) Buttress formation and directional stress experienced during critical phases of tree development. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 14(3):341-349. (Scopus )

Résumé

Patterns of buttress formation in tropical trees vary greatly within and among species. In Kibale National Park, Uganda, some form of a buttress was found on 23% of the 78 species (1785 trees) sampled from a variety of distantly related families. Large differences in buttress formation were documented within a single family and even within the same genus. Previous studies have suggested that buttresses are mechanical adaptations to counter asymmetric loads experienced during brief critical phases in a tree's development and these persist after the need for a mechanical support has disappeared. As a tree grows from the understorey, up to the canopy, or emerges from the canopy, the potential number of occasions that a tree will experience directional stress increases. Many canopy level trees will probably have been in the vicinity of a treefall gap during their development, while emergent trees may experience gap exposure in addition to wind stresses associated with canopy emergence. Therefore, it is predicted that understorey trees should have fewer and less developed buttresses (after correcting for overall tree size) than canopy trees, which should have fewer and less developed buttresses than emergent trees. Detailed measurements of buttresses from 194 trees of eight species support this prediction. There was no evidence that trees thought to have experienced directional stress associated with selective logging almost 30 y ago had increased the number or size of existing buttresses. The pattern of buttressing in Kibale generally supports the idea that buttresses are mechanical adaptations to counter episodic asymmetric loads, and that buttresses persist after the need for a mechanical support has disappeared.

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@ARTICLE { ChapmanKaufmanChapman1998,
    AUTHOR = { Chapman, C.A. and Kaufman, L. and Chapman, L.J. },
    TITLE = { Buttress formation and directional stress experienced during critical phases of tree development },
    JOURNAL = { Journal of Tropical Ecology },
    YEAR = { 1998 },
    VOLUME = { 14 },
    PAGES = { 341--349 },
    NUMBER = { 3 },
    __MARKEDENTRY = { [Luc:6] },
    ABSTRACT = { Patterns of buttress formation in tropical trees vary greatly within and among species. In Kibale National Park, Uganda, some form of a buttress was found on 23% of the 78 species (1785 trees) sampled from a variety of distantly related families. Large differences in buttress formation were documented within a single family and even within the same genus. Previous studies have suggested that buttresses are mechanical adaptations to counter asymmetric loads experienced during brief critical phases in a tree's development and these persist after the need for a mechanical support has disappeared. As a tree grows from the understorey, up to the canopy, or emerges from the canopy, the potential number of occasions that a tree will experience directional stress increases. Many canopy level trees will probably have been in the vicinity of a treefall gap during their development, while emergent trees may experience gap exposure in addition to wind stresses associated with canopy emergence. Therefore, it is predicted that understorey trees should have fewer and less developed buttresses (after correcting for overall tree size) than canopy trees, which should have fewer and less developed buttresses than emergent trees. Detailed measurements of buttresses from 194 trees of eight species support this prediction. There was no evidence that trees thought to have experienced directional stress associated with selective logging almost 30 y ago had increased the number or size of existing buttresses. The pattern of buttressing in Kibale generally supports the idea that buttresses are mechanical adaptations to counter episodic asymmetric loads, and that buttresses persist after the need for a mechanical support has disappeared. },
    ADDRESS = { Department of Biology, Boston University, 5 Cummington St., Boston, MA 02215, United States },
    COMMENT = { Cited By (since 1996):7 Export Date: 14 February 2014 Source: Scopus },
    KEYWORDS = { Buttress, Kibale National Park, Life history, Phenotypic plasticity, Uganda },
    OWNER = { Luc },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2014.02.14 },
    URL = { http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?eid=2-s2.0-0031816597&partnerID=40&md5=6003a54591b4a00c4245ad53fa993e1d },
}

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