BuddleLangorPohlEtAl2006

Reference

Buddle, C.M., Langor, D.W., Pohl, G.R. and Spence, J.R. (2006) Arthropod responses to harvesting and wildfire: Implications for emulation of natural disturbance in forest management. Biological Conservation, 128(3):346-357.

Abstract

Although natural disturbance has been widely adopted as a template for forest management that protects biodiversity, this hypothesis has not been adequately tested. We compared litter-dwelling arthropod assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae; Araneae) in aspen-dominated stands originating as clear-cuts or wildfires across three age classes (1-2, 14-15, and 28-29 years old) to test whether the post-harvest and post-fire assemblages converged following disturbances, and to compare faunal succession. These findings were compared to data about epigaeic arthropods in old and mature pyrogenic aspen stands (>70 years old) to determine whether diversity and community composition of arthropods from the younger age-classes approached what may have been typical pre-disturbance conditions. The resulting data-set of almost 27,000 arthropods and 230 species showed convergence in most taxa, and some general similarities between 28- and 29-year-old stands and old and mature stands. However, not all taxa responded similarly, and faunal succession following clear-cutting appeared to progress more rapidly than following wildfire. Rarefaction-estimated diversity was elevated in 1-2-year-old stands, compared to unharvested stands, reflecting a mix of closed-canopy and open-habitat species. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordinations showed that samples from young wildfire disturbed stands (1-2 years old) included more variable assemblages than all other study sites, and contained species that may depend on unique post-fire habitat characteristics. The fauna of old and mature stands exhibited low diversity, but contained species with limited dispersal abilities, and species tied to old-growth habitats such as dead wood. Harvesting systems that do not allow adequate recovery following a first harvesting pass, or do not maintain microhabitat features associated with older fire-origin forests, may threaten persistence of some elements of boreal arthropod faunas. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

EndNote Format

You can import this reference in EndNote.

BibTeX-CSV Format

You can import this reference in BibTeX-CSV format.

BibTeX Format

You can copy the BibTeX entry of this reference below, orimport it directly in a software like JabRef .

@ARTICLE { BuddleLangorPohlEtAl2006,
    AUTHOR = { Buddle, C.M. and Langor, D.W. and Pohl, G.R. and Spence, J.R. },
    TITLE = { Arthropod responses to harvesting and wildfire: Implications for emulation of natural disturbance in forest management },
    JOURNAL = { Biological Conservation },
    YEAR = { 2006 },
    VOLUME = { 128 },
    PAGES = { 346-357 },
    NUMBER = { 3 },
    NOTE = { 00063207 (ISSN) Cited By (since 1996): 4 Export Date: 26 April 2007 Source: Scopus CODEN: BICOB doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2005.10.002 Language of Original Document: English Correspondence Address: Buddle, C.M.; Department of Natural Resource Sciences; McGill University - Macdonald Campus; 21,111 Lakeshore Rd. Ste Anne de Bellevue, Que. H9X 3V9, Canada; email: chris.buddle@mcgill.ca References: Angelstam, P., Boutin, S., Schmiegelow, F.K.A., Villard, M.-A., Drapeau, P., Host, G., Innes, J., Stone, D., Targets for boreal forest biodiversity conservation - A rationale for macroecological research and adaptive management (2004) Ecological Bulletins, 51, pp. 487-509; Angelstam, P.K., Maintaining and restoring biodiversity in European boreal forests by developing natural disturbance regimes (1998) Journal of Vegetation Science, 9, pp. 593-602; Armstrong, G.W., A stochastic characterisation of the natural disturbance regime of the boreal mixedwood forest with implications for sustainable forest management (1999) Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 29, pp. 424-433; Armstrong, G.W., Adamowicz, W.L., Beck, J.A., Cumming, S.G., Schmiegelow, F.K.A., Coarse filter ecosystem management in a nonequilibrium forest (2003) Forest Science, 49, pp. 209-223; Beaudry, S., Duschesne, L.C., Co?te?, B., Short-term effects of three forestry practices on carabid assemblages in a jack pine forest (1997) Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, pp. 2065-2071; Bergeron, Y., Leduc, A., Harvey, B.D., Gauthier, S., Natural fire regime: A guide for sustainable management of the Canadian boreal forest (2002) Silva Fennica, 36, pp. 81-95; Blake, S., McCracken, D.I., Eyre, M.D., Garside, A., Foster, G.N., The relationship between the classification of Scottish ground beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and the National Vegetation Classification of British plant species (2003) Ecography, 26, pp. 602-616; Brzustowski, J., (2003) Rarefaction Calculator, http://www2.biology.ualberta.ca/jbrzusto/rarefact.php; Buddle, C.M., Spiders (Araneae) associated with downed woody material in deciduous forest in central Alberta, Canada (2001) Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 3, pp. 241-251; Buddle, C.M., Beguin, J., Bolduc, E., Mercado, A., Sackett, T.E., Selby, R.D., Varady-Szabo, H., Zeran, R.M., The importance and use of taxon sampling curves for comparative biodiversity research with forest arthropod assemblages (2005) The Canadian Entomologist, 137, pp. 120-127; Buddle, C.M., Spence, J.R., Langor, D.W., Succession of boreal forest spider assemblages following wildfire and harvesting (2000) Ecography, 23, pp. 424-436; Bunnell, F.L., Forest-dwelling vertebrate faunas and natural fire regimes in British Columbia: Patterns and implications for conservation (1995) Conservation Biology, 9, pp. 636-644; Cameron, E.A., Reeves, R.M., Carabidae (Coleoptera) associated with gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) populations subjected to Bacillus thurigiensis Berliner treatments in Pennsylvania (1990) The Canadian Entomologist, 122, pp. 123-129; Campbell, J.M., A revision of the genus Tachinus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) of North and Central America (1973) Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 90, pp. 1-137; Campbell, J.M., A revision of the North American Omaliinae (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) 3. the genus Acidota Stephens (1982) The Canadian Entomologist, 114, pp. 1003-1029; Campbell, J.M., A revision of the genera Mycetoporus Mannerheim and Ischnosoma Stephens (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Tachyporinae) of North and Central America (1991) Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 156, pp. 1-169; Connell, J.H., Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs (1978) Science, 199, pp. 1302-1310; Dale, V.H., Beyeler, S.C., Challenges in the development and use of ecological indicators (2001) Ecological Indicators, 1, pp. 3-10; Delong, S.C., Tanner, D., Managing the pattern of forest harvest: Lessons from wildfire (1996) Biodiversity and Conservation, 5, pp. 1191-1205; Dondale, C.D., Redner, J.H., The crab spiders of Canada and Alaska (Araneae: Philodromidae and Thomisidae) (1978) The Insects and Arachnids of Canada, (5 PART). , Agriculture Canada, Ottawa; Dondale, C.D., Redner, J.H., The wolf spiders, nurseryweb spiders, and lynx spiders of Canada and Alaska (Araneae: Lycosidae, Pisauridae, and Oxyopidae) (1990) The Insects and Arachnids of Canada, (17 PART). , Agriculture Canada, Ottawa; Dudevoir, D.S., Reeves, R.M., Feeding activity of carabid beetles and spiders on gypsy moth larvae (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) at high-density prey populations (1990) Journal of Entomological Science, 25, pp. 341-356; Dufre?ne, M., Legendre, P., Species assemblages and indicator species: The need for a flexible asymmetrical approach (1997) Ecological Monographs, 67, pp. 345-366; Franklin, J.F., Spies, T.A., Pelt, R.V., Carey, A.B., Thornburgh, D.A., Berg, D.R., Lindenmayer, D.B., Chen, J., Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications using Douglas-fir forests as an example (2002) Forest Ecology and Management, 155, pp. 399-423; Gandhi, K.J.K., Spence, J.R., Langor, D.W., Morgantini, L.E., Fire residuals as habitat reserves for epigaeic beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) (2001) Biological Conservation, 102, pp. 131-141; Gotelli, N.J., Colwell, R.K., Quantifying biodiversity: Procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness (2001) Ecology Letters, 4, pp. 379-391; Grove, S.J., Saproxylic insect ecology and the sustainable management of forests (2002) Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33, pp. 1-23; Haeussler, S., Kneeshaw, D., Comparing forest management to natural processes (2003) Towards Sustainable Management of the Boreal Forest, pp. 307-368. , P.J. Burton C. Messier D.W. Smith W.L. Adamowicz NRC Research Press Ottawa; Haila, Y., Hanski, I.K., Niemela?, J., Punttila, P., Raivio, S., Tukia, H., Forestry and the boreal fauna: Matching management with natural forest dynamics (1994) Annales Zoologica Fennici, 31, pp. 187-202; Hammond, H.E.J., Arthropod biodiversity from Populus coarse woody material in north-central Alberta: A review of taxa and collection methods (1997) Canadian Entomologist, 129, pp. 1009-1033; Harvey, B.D., Leduc, A., Gauthier, S., Bergeron, Y., Stand-landacape integration in natural disturbance-based management of the southern boreal forest (2002) Forest Ecology and Management, 155, pp. 369-385; Hatch, M.H., The Beetles of the Pacific Northwest, Part II: Staphyliniformia (1957) University of Washington Publications in Biology, 16, pp. ix+384. , Seattle, WA; Hobson, K.A., Shieck, J., Changes in bird communities in boreal mixedwood forest: Harvest and wildfire effects over 30 years (1999) Ecological Applications, 9, pp. 849-863; Holliday, N.J., Species responses of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) during post-fire regeneration of boreal forest (1991) The Canadian Entomologist, 123, pp. 1369-1389; Holliday, N.J., The carabid fauna (Coleoptera: Carabidae) during postfire regeneration of boreal forests: Properties and dynamics of species assemblages (1992) Canadian Journal of Zoology, 70, pp. 440-452; Huhta, V., Succession in the spider communities of the forest floor after clear-cutting and prescribed burning (1971) Annales Zoologici Fennici, 8, pp. 483-542; Hunter Jr., M.L., Natural fire regimes as spatial models for managing boreal forests (1993) Biological Conservation, 65, pp. 115-120; Jennings, D.T., Dimond, J.B., Watt, B.A., Population densities of spiders (Araneae) and spruce budworms (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) on foliage of balsam fir and red spruce in east-central Maine (1990) Journal of Arachnology, 18, pp. 181-193; Jonsson, B.G., Jonsell, M., Exploring potential biodiversity indicators in boreal forests (1999) Biodiversity and Conservation, 8, pp. 1417-1433; Kaston, B.J., Spiders of Connecticut (1948) State Geological and Natural History Survey, , Bulletin 70. Hartford, CT; Klimaszewski, J., Diversity of the rove beetles in Canada and Alaska (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) (2000) Memoire de la Societe Royal Belge d'Entomologie, 39, pp. 3-126; Koivula, M., Niemela?, J., Gap felling as a forest harvesting method in boreal forests: Responses of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) (2003) Ecography, 26, pp. 179-187; Larochelle, A., The food of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, including Cicindelinae) (1990) Association des Entomologistes Amateurs du Quebec, Fabreries Supplement, 5, pp. 1-132; Larsson, S., Danell, K., Science and the management of boreal forest biodiversity (2001) Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 3, pp. 5-9; Lindroth, C.H., The ground-beetles of Canada and Alaska (1961) Opuscula Entomologica (Supplement), 20-33, pp. 1-1192; MacNally, R., Bennett, R.F., Brown, G.W., Lumsden, L.F., Yen, A., Hinkley, S., Lillywhite, P., Ward, D., How well do ecosystem-based planning units represent different components of biodiversity? (2003) Ecological Applications, 12, pp. 900-912; Magurran, A.E., (2004) Measuring Biological Diversity, , Blackwell Malden, MA; Martikainen, P., Siitonen, J., Kaila, L., Punttila, P., Rauth, J., Bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) and associated beetle species in mature managed and old-growth boreal forests in southern Finland (1999) Forest Ecology and Management, 116, pp. 233-245; Mason, R.R., Jennings, D.T., Paul, H.G., Wickman, B.E., Patterns of spider (Araneae) abundance during an outbreak of western spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) (1997) Environmental Entomology, 26, pp. 507-518; May, R.M., How many species are there on earth? (1988) Science, 241, pp. 1441-1449; McCune, B., Mefford, M.J., (1999) PC-Ord: Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data, , MjM Software Design Gleneden Beach, Oregon; McGeoch, M.A., The selection, testing and application of terrestrial insects as bioindicators (1998) Biological Reviews, 73, pp. 181-201; Naeem, S., Ecosystem consequences of biodiversity loss: The evolution of a paradigm (2002) Ecology, 83, pp. 1537-1552; Newton, A.F., Thayer, M.K., Ashe, J.S., Chandler, D.S., Staphylinidae Latreille, 1802 (2001) American Beetles, 1. , R.H. Arnett Jr. M.C. Thomas CRC Press Washington, DC; Nguyen-Xuan, T., Bergeron, Y., Simard, D., Fyles, J.W., Pare, D., The importance of forest floor disturbance in the early regeneration patterns of the boreal forest of western and central Quebec: A wildfire versus logging comparison (2000) Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 30, pp. 1353-1364; Niemela?, J., Management in relation to disturbance in the boreal forest (1999) Forest Ecology and Management, 115, pp. 127-134; Niemela?, J., Biodiversity monitoring for decision-making (2000) Annales Zoologica Fennici, 37, pp. 307-317; Niemela?, J., Haila, Y., Punttila, P., The importance of small-scale heterogeneity in boreal forests: Variation in diversity in forest-floor invertebrates across the succession gradient (1996) Ecography, 19, pp. 352-368; Niemela?, J., Langor, D., Spence, J.R., Effects of clear-cut harvesting on boreal ground-beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in western Canada (1993) Conservation Biology, 7, pp. 551-561; Oliver, I., Holmes, A., Dangerfield, J.M., Gillings, M., Pik, A.J., Britton, D.R., Holley, M., Beattie, A.J., Land systems as surrogates for biodiversity in conservation planning (2004) Ecological Applications, 14, pp. 485-503; Pajunen, T., Haila, Y., Halme, E., Niemela?, J., Punttila, P., Ground-dwelling spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) in fragmented old forests and surrounding managed forests in southern Finland (1995) Ecography, 18, pp. 62-72; Perry, D.A., The scientific basis of forestry (1998) Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 29, pp. 435-466; Petraitis, P.S., Latham, R.E., Niesenbaum, R.A., The mainenance of species diversity by disturbance (1989) The Quarterly Review of Biology, 64, pp. 393-418; Pratt, L., Urquhart, I., (1994) The Last Great Forest, , NeWest Press Edmonton; Rainio, J., Niemela?, J., Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as bioindicators (2003) Biodiversity and Conservation, 12, pp. 487-506; Raymond, B., Venbergen, A., Watt, A., Hartley, S.E., Cory, J.S., Hails, R.S., Escape from pupal predation as a potential cause of outbreaks of the winter moth Operophtera brumata (2002) Oikos, 98, pp. 219-228; Reich, P.B., Bakken, P., Carlson, D., Frelich, L.E., Friedman, S.K., Grigal, D.F., Influence of logging, fire, and forest type on biodiversity and productivity in southern boreal forests (2001) Ecology, 82, pp. 2731-2748; Rowe, J.S., (1972) Forest Regions of Canada, , Canadian Forest Service Publications Ottawa, Canada; Saint-Germain, M., Larrive?e, M., Drapeau, P., Fahrig, L., Buddle, C.M., Short-term response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to fire and logging in a spruce-dominated boreal landscape (2005) Forest Ecology and Management, 212, pp. 118-126; Seta?la?, H., Haimi, J., Sirra-Pietika?inen, A., Sensitivity of soil processes in northern forest soils: Are management practices a threat? (2000) Forest Ecology and Management, 133, pp. 5-11; Siitonen, J., Forest management, coarse woody debris and saproxylic organisms: Fennoscandian boreal forests as an example (2001) Ecological Bulletins, 49, pp. 11-41; Siitonen, J., Martikainen, P., Occurrence of rare and threatened insects living on decaying Populus tremula: A comparison between Finnish and Russian Karelia (1994) Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 9, pp. 185-191; Simard, D.G., Fyles, J.W., Pare, D., Nguyen, T., Impacts of clearcut harvesting and wildfire on soil nutrient status in the Quebec boreal forest (2001) Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 81, pp. 229-237; Simberloff, D., The role of science in the preservation of forest biodiversity (1999) Forest Ecology and Management, 115, pp. 101-111; Smetana, A., Revision of the tribe Quediini of America North of Mexico (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) (1971) Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 79, pp. 1-303; Smetana, A., Rove beetles of the subtribe Philonthina of America North of Mexico (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Classification, phylogeny, and taxonomic revision (1995) Memoirs on Entomology International, 3, pp. 1-946; Spence, J.R., The new boreal forestry: Adjusting timber management to accomodate biodiversity (2001) Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16, pp. 591-593; Spence, J.R., Buddle, C.M., Gandhi, K., Langor, D.W., Volney, W.J.A., Hammond, H.E.J., Pohl, G.R., Invertebrate biodiversity, forestry and emulation of natural disturbance: A down-to-earth perspective (1999) USDA Forest Service, Technical Report PNW-GTR-461, pp. 80-90. , Pacific Northwest Forest and Rangeland Soil Organism Symposium. Pacific NW Research Station, Portland, OR; Spence, J.R., Langor, D.W., Niemela?, J., Ca?rcamo, H.A., Currie, C.R., Northern forestry and carabids: The case for concern about old-growth species (1996) Annales Zoologici Fennici, 33, pp. 173-184; Spence, J.R., Niemela?, J.K., Sampling carabid assemblages with pitfall traps: The madness and the method (1994) Canadian Entomologist, 126, pp. 881-894; Strong, W.L., Leggat, K.R., (1992) Ecoregions of Alberta, , Alberta Forest Lands and Wildlife, Edmonton; Tilman, D., The ecological consequences of changes in biodiversity: A search for general principles (1999) Ecology, 80, pp. 1455-1474; Van Helsdingen, P.J., The affinities of Wabana and Allomengea with some notes on the latter genus (Araneae, Linyphiidae) (1974) Zoologische Mededelingen, 46, pp. 295-321; Wikars, L.-O., Clear-cutting before burning prevents establishment of the fire-adapted Agonum quadripunctatum (Coleoptera: Carabidae) (1995) Annales Zoologica Fennici, 32, pp. 375-384; Wikars, L.-O., Schimmel, J., Immediate effects of fire severity on soil invertebrates in cut and uncut pine forests (2001) Forest Ecology and Management, 141, pp. 189-200; Wilson, E.O., (1992) The Diversity of Life, , W.W. Norton \& Company New York; Work, T.T., Shorthouse, D.P., Spence, J.R., Volney, W.J.A., Langor, D., Stand composition and structure of the boreal mixedwood and epigaeic arthropods of the Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbance (EMEND) landbase in northwestern Alberta (2004) Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34, pp. 417-430; Work, T.T., Spence, J.R., Volney, W.J.A., Burton, P.J., Sustainable forest management as license to think and to try something different (2003) Towards Sustainable Management of the Boreal Forest, pp. 953-970. , P.J. Burton C. Messier D.W. Smith W.L. Adamowicz NRC Research Press Ottawa; Yodzis, P., Competition, mortality and community structure (1986) Community Ecology, pp. 480-491. , J.M. Diamond T.J. Case Harper \& Row New York. },
    ABSTRACT = { Although natural disturbance has been widely adopted as a template for forest management that protects biodiversity, this hypothesis has not been adequately tested. We compared litter-dwelling arthropod assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Staphylinidae; Araneae) in aspen-dominated stands originating as clear-cuts or wildfires across three age classes (1-2, 14-15, and 28-29 years old) to test whether the post-harvest and post-fire assemblages converged following disturbances, and to compare faunal succession. These findings were compared to data about epigaeic arthropods in old and mature pyrogenic aspen stands (>70 years old) to determine whether diversity and community composition of arthropods from the younger age-classes approached what may have been typical pre-disturbance conditions. The resulting data-set of almost 27,000 arthropods and 230 species showed convergence in most taxa, and some general similarities between 28- and 29-year-old stands and old and mature stands. However, not all taxa responded similarly, and faunal succession following clear-cutting appeared to progress more rapidly than following wildfire. Rarefaction-estimated diversity was elevated in 1-2-year-old stands, compared to unharvested stands, reflecting a mix of closed-canopy and open-habitat species. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling ordinations showed that samples from young wildfire disturbed stands (1-2 years old) included more variable assemblages than all other study sites, and contained species that may depend on unique post-fire habitat characteristics. The fauna of old and mature stands exhibited low diversity, but contained species with limited dispersal abilities, and species tied to old-growth habitats such as dead wood. Harvesting systems that do not allow adequate recovery following a first harvesting pass, or do not maintain microhabitat features associated with older fire-origin forests, may threaten persistence of some elements of boreal arthropod faunas. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. },
    KEYWORDS = { Beetles Biodiversity Boreal forests Coarse-filter management Natural disturbance hypothesis Spiders arthropod biodiversity community response forest management wildfire Araneae Arthropoda Carabidae Coleoptera Staphylinidae },
    OWNER = { brugerolles },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2007.12.05 },
}

********************************************************** ***************** Facebook Twitter *********************** **********************************************************

Abonnez-vous à
l'Infolettre du CEF!

********************************************************** ************* Colloque **************************** **********************************************************

1er au 3 mai 2019
UQAC

********************************************************** ************* R à Québec 2019**************************** **********************************************************

********************************************************** ********************* Traits **************************** **********************************************************

********************************************************** ************* Écoles d'été et formation **************************** **********************************************************

Écoles d'été et formations

Cours intensif sur l'analyse des pistes 
6-10 mai 2019, Université de Sherbrooke
Cours intensif : Taxonomie et méthodes d’échantillonnage en tourbières 
6-17 mai 2019, Université Laval
Dendrochronological Fieldweek 2019 
16-21 mai 2019, Station FERLD
Traits Fonctionnels des Organismes - École thématique internationale
19-24 mai 2019, Porquerolles, France
Cours aux cycles supérieurs: Terrain avancé en géographie 
10-15 juin 2019, FERLD, Abitibi-Témiscamingue
École d'été « Drones et télédétection environnementale » 
13-14 juin 2019, Sherbrooke
Ecole d'été en Biologie et Ecologie intégratives 
6-12 juillet 2019, Pyrénées françaises
École d'été en modélisation de la biodiversité 
19-23 août 2019, Orford
Cours aux cycles supérieurs: Aménagement des écosystèmes forestiers 
19-30 août 2019, Station FERLD

********************************************************** ***************** Pub - Carapace ****************** **********************************************************

********************************************************** ***************** Pub - Budworm ****************** **********************************************************

********************************************************** ***************** Pub - Colibri **************************** **********************************************************

********************************************************** ********** Pub 6 - Au coeur de l'arbre *********** **********************************************************

...Une exposition
virtuelle sur l'arbre!

********************************************************** ***************** Boîte à trucs *************** **********************************************************

CEF-Référence
La référence vedette !

Jérémie Alluard (2016) Les statistiques au moments de la rédaction 

  • Ce document a pour but de guider les étudiants à intégrer de manière appropriée une analyse statistique dans leur rapport de recherche.

Voir les autres...