WangMoradiKlumppEtAl2021

Référence

Wang, Y., Moradi, G., Klumpp, E., von Sperber, C., Tamburini, F., Ritter, B., Fuentes, B., Amelung, W., Bol, R. (2021) Phosphate oxygen isotope fingerprints of past biological activity in the Atacama Desert. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 311:1-11. (Scopus )

Résumé

The Atacama Desert (Chile) is one of driest places on Earth, with a hyper-arid climate and less than 2 mm yr−1 precipitation; nevertheless, it has experienced rare periods of sporadic rainfall. These periods shortly enhanced vegetation growth and microbial activity, which must have utilized major nutrients such as phosphorus (P). However, any biological cycling of P involves an oxygen exchange with water, which should now reside in the hyperarid soils as tracer of life. In order to identify such evidences, we performed sequential P fractionation and analyzed the oxygen isotope composition of HCl-extractable phosphate (δ18OHCl–P) in the surface soil (0–15 cm) of a climatic gradient along the rising alluvial fans of the Central Depression to the Precordillera, Chile. At the driest sites, the δ18OHCl-P values were constant with depth and deviated from biologically-driven isotopic equilibrium. In contrast, we observed a considerable increase of δ18OHCl-P values below the soil surface at less arid sites, where some isotope values were even within the range of full isotopic equilibrium with biologically cycled phosphate. For the latter sites, this points to most efficient biological P cycling right below the uppermost surface of the desert. Critically, the absolute concentrations of this biologically cycled P exceeded those of P potentially stored in living microbial cells by at least two orders of magnitude. Therefore, our data provides evidence that δ18OHCl-P values trace not recent but past biological activity, making it a powerful tool for assessing the existence, pathways and evolution of life in such arid ecosystems on Earth and, thus, potentially on other planets such as Mars. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

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@ARTICLE { WangMoradiKlumppEtAl2021,
    AUTHOR = { Wang, Y. and Moradi, G. and Klumpp, E. and von Sperber, C. and Tamburini, F. and Ritter, B. and Fuentes, B. and Amelung, W. and Bol, R. },
    JOURNAL = { Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta },
    TITLE = { Phosphate oxygen isotope fingerprints of past biological activity in the Atacama Desert },
    YEAR = { 2021 },
    NOTE = { cited By 0 },
    PAGES = { 1-11 },
    VOLUME = { 311 },
    ABSTRACT = { The Atacama Desert (Chile) is one of driest places on Earth, with a hyper-arid climate and less than 2 mm yr−1 precipitation; nevertheless, it has experienced rare periods of sporadic rainfall. These periods shortly enhanced vegetation growth and microbial activity, which must have utilized major nutrients such as phosphorus (P). However, any biological cycling of P involves an oxygen exchange with water, which should now reside in the hyperarid soils as tracer of life. In order to identify such evidences, we performed sequential P fractionation and analyzed the oxygen isotope composition of HCl-extractable phosphate (δ18OHCl–P) in the surface soil (0–15 cm) of a climatic gradient along the rising alluvial fans of the Central Depression to the Precordillera, Chile. At the driest sites, the δ18OHCl-P values were constant with depth and deviated from biologically-driven isotopic equilibrium. In contrast, we observed a considerable increase of δ18OHCl-P values below the soil surface at less arid sites, where some isotope values were even within the range of full isotopic equilibrium with biologically cycled phosphate. For the latter sites, this points to most efficient biological P cycling right below the uppermost surface of the desert. Critically, the absolute concentrations of this biologically cycled P exceeded those of P potentially stored in living microbial cells by at least two orders of magnitude. Therefore, our data provides evidence that δ18OHCl-P values trace not recent but past biological activity, making it a powerful tool for assessing the existence, pathways and evolution of life in such arid ecosystems on Earth and, thus, potentially on other planets such as Mars. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd },
    AFFILIATION = { Institute of Crop Science and Resource Conservation – Soil Science and Soil Ecology, University of Bonn, Bonn, 53115, Germany; Agrosphere (IBG-3), Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany; Institute for Environmental Research, Biology 5, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, Aachen, 52074, Germany; Department of Geography, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0B9, Canada; Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, Lindau, 8315, Switzerland; Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Cologne, Cologne, 50675, Germany; Laboratorio de Tecnología de Membranas, Medio Ambiente y Biotecnología, Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta, Chile },
    AUTHOR_KEYWORDS = { Hyperarid soils; Oxygen isotope composition of HCl-extractable phosphate (δ18OHCl P); Past biological activity; Sequential P fractionation; The Atacama Desert },
    DOCUMENT_TYPE = { Article },
    DOI = { 10.1016/j.gca.2021.07.027 },
    SOURCE = { Scopus },
    URL = { https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85112019688&doi=10.1016%2fj.gca.2021.07.027&partnerID=40&md5=a9d3703e30fc84a7d0cc0ae79ef75683 },
}

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