ChangGeWuEtAl2021

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Chang, J., Ge, Y., Wu, Z., Du, Y., Pan, K., Yang, G., Ren, Y., Heino, M.P., Mao, F., Cheong, K.H., Qu, Z., Fan, X., Min, Y., Peng, C., Meyerson, L.A. (2021) Modern cities modelled as “super-cells” rather than multicellular organisms: Implications for industry, goods and services. BioEssays, 43(7). (Scopus )

Résumé

The structure and “metabolism” (movement and conversion of goods and energy) of urban areas has caused cities to be identified as “super-organisms”, placed between ecosystems and the biosphere, in the hierarchy of living systems. Yet most such analogies are weak, and render the super-organism model ineffective for sustainable development of cities. Via a cluster analysis of 15 shared traits of the hierarchical living system, we found that industrialized cities are more similar to eukaryotic cells than to multicellular organisms; enclosed systems, such as factories and greenhouses, paralleling organelles in eukaryotic cells. We further developed a “super-cell” industrialized city model: a “eukarcity” with citynucleus (urban area) as a regulating centre, and organaras (enclosed systems, which provide the majority of goods and services) as the functional components, and cityplasm (natural ecosystems and farmlands) as the matrix. This model may improve the vitality and sustainability of cities through planning and management. © 2021 The Authors. BioEssays published by Wiley Periodicals LLC

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@ARTICLE { ChangGeWuEtAl2021,
    AUTHOR = { Chang, J. and Ge, Y. and Wu, Z. and Du, Y. and Pan, K. and Yang, G. and Ren, Y. and Heino, M.P. and Mao, F. and Cheong, K.H. and Qu, Z. and Fan, X. and Min, Y. and Peng, C. and Meyerson, L.A. },
    JOURNAL = { BioEssays },
    TITLE = { Modern cities modelled as “super-cells” rather than multicellular organisms: Implications for industry, goods and services },
    YEAR = { 2021 },
    NOTE = { cited By 0 },
    NUMBER = { 7 },
    VOLUME = { 43 },
    ABSTRACT = { The structure and “metabolism” (movement and conversion of goods and energy) of urban areas has caused cities to be identified as “super-organisms”, placed between ecosystems and the biosphere, in the hierarchy of living systems. Yet most such analogies are weak, and render the super-organism model ineffective for sustainable development of cities. Via a cluster analysis of 15 shared traits of the hierarchical living system, we found that industrialized cities are more similar to eukaryotic cells than to multicellular organisms; enclosed systems, such as factories and greenhouses, paralleling organelles in eukaryotic cells. We further developed a “super-cell” industrialized city model: a “eukarcity” with citynucleus (urban area) as a regulating centre, and organaras (enclosed systems, which provide the majority of goods and services) as the functional components, and cityplasm (natural ecosystems and farmlands) as the matrix. This model may improve the vitality and sustainability of cities through planning and management. © 2021 The Authors. BioEssays published by Wiley Periodicals LLC },
    AFFILIATION = { College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom; Science, Mathematics and Technology Cluster, Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD), Singapore; SUTD–Massachusetts Institute of Technology International Design Centre, Singapore; College of Computer Science and Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China; Center of CEF/ESCER, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Quebec at Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; Natural Resources Science, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, United States },
    ART_NUMBER = { 2100041 },
    AUTHOR_KEYWORDS = { hierarchical living system; industrial systems; scaling; sustainability; urban-rural system },
    DOCUMENT_TYPE = { Article },
    DOI = { 10.1002/bies.202100041 },
    SOURCE = { Scopus },
    URL = { https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-85107212280&doi=10.1002%2fbies.202100041&partnerID=40&md5=686589c518dcafdf493ea09c987c10d5 },
}

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