ElferjaniDesRochersTremblay2014

Référence

Elferjani, R., DesRochers, A. and Tremblay, M.F. (2014) Effects of mixing clones on hybrid poplar productivity, photosynthesis and root development in northeastern Canadian plantations. Forest Ecology and Management, 327:157 - 166. (URL )

Résumé

Mixing tree cultivars or species in forest plantations can be efficient to reduce the risk of pest damages and could have a positive effect on yields if complementarity or facilitation between trees occurs. Four hybrid poplar clones (747215, Populus trichocarpa Torrey & A.Gray × P. balsamifera L.; 915004 and 915005, P. balsamifera × P. maximowiczii Henry; and 915319 P. maximowiczii × P. balsamifera) were planted in monoclonal and polyclonal plantations in three sites located in Quebec, Canada, to assess effects of clonal diversity on (i) aboveground biomass productivity, (ii) net photosynthesis and nutrient status of trees, and (iii) root spatial distribution. Stem growth was measured over five growing seasons, while root development, foliar nutrient concentrations and photosynthesis were measured during the fifth growing season. Results showed frequent but not general overyielding of trees in the polyclonal plots compared to monoclonal plots, five years after plantation establishment. Overall, stem volumes were 21% higher in the polyclonal (7.4 m3 ha−1) vs. monoclonal (6.1 m3 ha−1) plots. Effects of clone mixing on growth were greater in sites where soil nutrients were more limiting. However, foliar macronutrient concentrations (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in trees growing in polyclonal plots were similar to those in monoclonal plots. Root development differed between the two plot layouts, with mean root:shoot ratio being greater in monoclonal (0.41:1) vs. the polyclonal (0.35:1) plots. Mixing clones increased biomass allocation aboveground, which we attributed to reduced competition between individuals of different clones and could explain overyielding in the polyclonal plots. The root fraction most distant from the stem (⩾60 cm) was greater in monoclonal (67% of total root biomass) compared to polyclonal (47% of total root biomass) plots, suggesting greater belowground competition in the former, which forced roots to extend further from the stems. Effects of plot layout on net assimilation rate (Pn) depended on site, with trees in polyclonal plots having greater Pn in two of the three sites. Root total non-structural carbohydrates were greater in the polyclonal (216 mg g−1) compared to the monoclonal (159 mg g−1) plots. Mixing hybrid poplar clones often resulted in greater aboveground growth, lower root:shoot ratios, and different spatial root distributions, when compared to clones planted in monocultures.

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@ARTICLE { ElferjaniDesRochersTremblay2014,
    AUTHOR = { Elferjani, R. and DesRochers, A. and Tremblay, M.F. },
    TITLE = { Effects of mixing clones on hybrid poplar productivity, photosynthesis and root development in northeastern Canadian plantations },
    JOURNAL = { Forest Ecology and Management },
    YEAR = { 2014 },
    VOLUME = { 327 },
    PAGES = { 157 - 166 },
    NUMBER = { 0 },
    ABSTRACT = { Mixing tree cultivars or species in forest plantations can be efficient to reduce the risk of pest damages and could have a positive effect on yields if complementarity or facilitation between trees occurs. Four hybrid poplar clones (747215, Populus trichocarpa Torrey & A.Gray × P. balsamifera L.; 915004 and 915005, P. balsamifera × P. maximowiczii Henry; and 915319 P. maximowiczii × P. balsamifera) were planted in monoclonal and polyclonal plantations in three sites located in Quebec, Canada, to assess effects of clonal diversity on (i) aboveground biomass productivity, (ii) net photosynthesis and nutrient status of trees, and (iii) root spatial distribution. Stem growth was measured over five growing seasons, while root development, foliar nutrient concentrations and photosynthesis were measured during the fifth growing season. Results showed frequent but not general overyielding of trees in the polyclonal plots compared to monoclonal plots, five years after plantation establishment. Overall, stem volumes were 21% higher in the polyclonal (7.4 m3 ha−1) vs. monoclonal (6.1 m3 ha−1) plots. Effects of clone mixing on growth were greater in sites where soil nutrients were more limiting. However, foliar macronutrient concentrations (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) in trees growing in polyclonal plots were similar to those in monoclonal plots. Root development differed between the two plot layouts, with mean root:shoot ratio being greater in monoclonal (0.41:1) vs. the polyclonal (0.35:1) plots. Mixing clones increased biomass allocation aboveground, which we attributed to reduced competition between individuals of different clones and could explain overyielding in the polyclonal plots. The root fraction most distant from the stem (⩾60 cm) was greater in monoclonal (67% of total root biomass) compared to polyclonal (47% of total root biomass) plots, suggesting greater belowground competition in the former, which forced roots to extend further from the stems. Effects of plot layout on net assimilation rate (Pn) depended on site, with trees in polyclonal plots having greater Pn in two of the three sites. Root total non-structural carbohydrates were greater in the polyclonal (216 mg g−1) compared to the monoclonal (159 mg g−1) plots. Mixing hybrid poplar clones often resulted in greater aboveground growth, lower root:shoot ratios, and different spatial root distributions, when compared to clones planted in monocultures. },
    DOI = { http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2014.05.013 },
    ISSN = { 0378-1127 },
    KEYWORDS = { Clones mixture },
    OWNER = { Daniel Lesieur },
    TIMESTAMP = { 2014.06.11 },
    URL = { http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037811271400293X },
}

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